Flora of Coyote Mountain Area



This checklist is a start at a flora of the Coyote Mountain Area, immediately north of Borrego Springs. It consists of the species found on two plant trail guides that have been worked on for a total of six field days, plus voucher records from a number of different people.

See also Flora of Southeast Coyote Mountain Area.

The area covered by this flora is shown in the following map, along with surrounding locations:

The outlined square includes four San Diego County Plant Atlas Grid Cells: D24 (upper left quadrant), D25 (upper right quadrant), E24 (lower left quadrant), and E25 (lower right quadrant). Those squares completely cover Coyote Mountain except for a small portion of Coyote Mountain to the east of E25.

Because many of the vouchers for this area come from the Plant Atlas, it is simplest to define the area covered by this flora as those four grid cells, plus the small portions of Coyote Mountain and Clark Valley that are west of Rockhouse Canyon Road outside those grid cells.

The total area so defined is about 38 square miles, composed of roughly the following areas:

FeatureArea (square miles)% of Total
Coyote Mountain20.554%
Agriculture / Urban8.021%
Coyote Wash5.514%
Clark Valley3.08%
Galleta Meadows Area1.03%

The vouchers came from a search on 22 December 2007 of the Consortium of California Herbaria, and a search of the San Diego Plant Atlas and Herbarium records on 22 and 24 December 2007.

The Consortium records were searched for San Diego County specimens that contained the word coyote in the locality. Records for the following locations were removed: Los Coyotes Indian Reservation; Coyote Mountains near Ocotillo; Coyote Wells near Mountain Springs Grade; Coyote Holes in the Little San Bernardino Mountains; and locations in Coyote Creek west of the study area, identified either by coordinates or a location of Coyote Canyon. This resulted in 237 records.

Grid cells D24, D25, E24 and E25 were retrieved from the San Diego Plant Atlas and the San Diego Herbarium database, resulting in 407 records.

These two datasets were then combined. San Diego records also present in the Consortium database were identified by collector and collection numbers and removed, leaving the Consortium version since the Consortium records have more locality information. The final voucher database consisted of 472 vouchers, 237 from the Consortium records and 235 from the Plant Atlas / SD Herbarium records. (Note the huge recent increase in the total number of vouchers in this area due to the San Diego Plant Atlas Project!)

The dominant collectors in the final voucher database were Bill Sullivan, 169 vouchers; Frank Gander, 73 vouchers; and Robin Halford, 63 vouchers.

There were 197 total unique taxa from 468 of those 472 vouchers; the other four were not determined to species. None of the 197 taxa resulted from San Diego Plant Atlas vouchers not yet verified by Jon Rebman. 33 of those 197 taxa were not listed in 1985 Duffie Clemons Borrego Springs Floristic Area Checklist.

Combining just the Alcoholic Pass and Coyote Creek Wash plant trail guides yields 129 taxa. 94 of those taxa are vouchered in the collection above; an additional 30 of those taxa are vouchered in the 1985 Duffie Clemons Borrego Springs Floristic Area Checklist. Only five of the 129 taxa are not vouchered in either data set. I have vouchered one of those five taxa, but not yet turned it in.

The union of the vouchers and the plant trail guides gives the 231 taxa listed below, consisting of 198 native and 33 non-native taxa.

The effective size of this area for comparisons to the number of native taxa found elsewhere is 30 square miles, after excluding the area destroyed for agriculture / urban uses. An area of this size in most of southern California would have roughly 375 native taxa, but desert regions have somewhat fewer taxa.

The Granite Mountains in eastern San Bernardino County has 460 native taxa in an area of 107 square miles, about 85% of the number of taxa expected from an area in the CA-FP. Using that same factor of 0.85, one would expect 315 native taxa in this flora, about 60% more than is listed below. That is probably an upper limit to the number of taxa expected here, since there is not as much habitat variation in the Coyote Mountain Area as in many areas.

Interestingly, the diversity here is comparable to that of San Clemente Island, which has 233 native taxa in 57 square miles.

There is no doubt that the checklist below is incomplete. Just two plant trail surveys yielded a 17% increase in the number of native taxa over the number of taxa derived just from vouchers. It would not be unreasonable to expect that full coverage of this area would increase the number of native taxa by another 30% or so.

Checklist for Coyote Mountain Area

The Checklist is sorted first by category - dicots, monocots, and ferns - and then by family and scientific name. The Family and Scientific Name are from the Jepson Manual. An asterisk before the Common Name indicates a non-native taxon.

The first two columns after the Common Name indicate whether a taxon is present in the Alcoholic Pass and Coyote Creek Wash plant trail guides.

The column # Vouchers gives the number of vouchers found in this area, as detailed above.

The final column, Clemons 1985, indicates whether a taxon was present in Floristic Area #16, the extended Borrego Springs area, in Duffie Clemons' 1985 Checklist of Vascular Plants of the Anza-Borrego Desert.

See also Flora of Southeast Coyote Mountain Area.

#FamilyScientific Name(*)Common NameAlco.
1AcanthaceaeJusticia californicachuparosa  2X
2AmaranthaceaeAmaranthus albus*tumble pigweed X  
3AmaranthaceaeAmaranthus blitoidesmat amaranth  2 
4AmaranthaceaeTidestromia oblongifoliaArizona honeysweet X X
5AsclepiadaceaeAsclepias subulataajamete  3X
6AsclepiadaceaeSarcostemma cynanchoides ssp. hartwegiiclimbing milkweed X X
7AsteraceaeAmbrosia acanthicarpabur-ragweed X  
8AsteraceaeAmbrosia dumosaburroweedXX3X
9AsteraceaeBaccharis salicifoliamule fat  3X
10AsteraceaeBaileya pauciradiataColorado Desert marigold X4X
11AsteraceaeBebbia juncea var. asperasweetbushXX1X
12AsteraceaeCalycoseris parryiyellow tackstem  1 
13AsteraceaeCarthamus tinctorius*safflower  2 
14AsteraceaeChaenactis artemisiifoliameally white pincushion  1X
15AsteraceaeChaenactis carphoclinia var. carphocliniapebble pincushion X1X
16AsteraceaeChaenactis fremontiiFremont pincushion X4X
17AsteraceaeChaenactis stevioidesdesert pincushion X2X
18AsteraceaeChrysothamnus paniculatuspunctate rabbitbrush  1X
19AsteraceaeConyza bonariensis*little horseweed  2 
20AsteraceaeConyza canadensishorseweed  1 
21AsteraceaeDicoria canescensdesert dicoria X6X
22AsteraceaeEncelia farinosabrittlebushXX6X
23AsteraceaeEncelia frutescensbutton encelia X X
24AsteraceaeFilago californicaCalifornia filago  1X
25AsteraceaeGeraea canescenshairy desert-sunflower X6X
26AsteraceaeGnaphalium luteo-album*common cudweed  2 
27AsteraceaeHelianthus niveus ssp. canescensgray desert sunflower X3X
28AsteraceaeHeterotheca grandifloratelegraph weed  2 
29AsteraceaeHymenoclea salsola var. salsolacheesebushXX3X
30AsteraceaeIsocoma acradenia var. eremophilasolitary-leaved alkali goldenbush  1X
31AsteraceaeLactuca serriola*prickly lettuce  2X
32AsteraceaeMalacothrix glabratadesert dandelion X7X
33AsteraceaeMonoptilon bellioidesdesert star X3X
34AsteraceaePalafoxia arida var. aridadesert needle X5X
35AsteraceaePectis papposa var. papposachinch-weed  2X
36AsteraceaePerityle emoryiEmory's rock-daisy X7X
37AsteraceaePeucephyllum schottiidesert pine X X
38AsteraceaePluchea sericeaarrow-weedX 2X
39AsteraceaeRafinesquia neomexicanadesert chicory X5X
40AsteraceaeSenecio mohavensisMojave ragwort X3X
41AsteraceaeSonchus oleraceus*sow thistle  3 
42AsteraceaeStephanomeria exigua ssp. exiguaslender wreathplant  2 
43AsteraceaeStephanomeria pauciflora var. pauciflorawire-lettuceX 2X
44AsteraceaeTrichoptilium incisumyellow-head  1X
45AsteraceaeTrixis californica var. californicaCalifornia trixis  2X
46AsteraceaeUropappus lindleyisilver puffs  1 
47AsteraceaeViguiera parishiiParish's viguiera  1X
48BignoniaceaeChilopsis linearis ssp. arcuatadesert-willow  1X
49BoraginaceaeAmsinckia menziesii var. intermediacommon fiddleneck  1X
50BoraginaceaeCryptantha angustifolianarrow-leaved cryptantha X7X
51BoraginaceaeCryptantha costataribbed cryptantha X1X
52BoraginaceaeCryptantha ganderiGander's cryptantha X4X
53BoraginaceaeCryptantha holopterawinged cryptantha  1X
54BoraginaceaeCryptantha maritimaGuadalupe cryptantha  3X
55BoraginaceaeCryptantha micranthapurple-root cryptantha  4X
56BoraginaceaeCryptantha pterocaryawing-nut cryptantha  1X
57BoraginaceaeCryptantha racemosabushy cryptantha  1X
58BoraginaceaeHeliotropium curassavicumseaside heliotrope  2X
59BoraginaceaePectocarya heterocarpachuckwalla pectocarya X1X
60BoraginaceaePectocarya platycarpabroad-fruited combseed  3X
61BoraginaceaePectocarya recurvatacurvenut combseed  2X
62BoraginaceaeTiquilia palmeriPalmer's coldeniaXX1X
63BoraginaceaeTiquilia plicataplicate coldenia X2X
64BrassicaceaeBrassica napus*rapeseed  1 
65BrassicaceaeBrassica tournefortii*Asian mustard X5X
66BrassicaceaeCaulanthus cooperiCooper's jewel-flower  1 
67BrassicaceaeDescurainia pinnata ssp. glabrasmooth western tansy-mustard  1X
68BrassicaceaeDithyrea californicaspectacle-pod X5X
69BrassicaceaeDraba cuneifoliawedge-leaved draba  1X
70BrassicaceaeGuillenia lasiophyllaCalifornia mustard  2X
71BrassicaceaeHirschfeldia incana*shortpod mustard  1 
72BrassicaceaeLepidium lasiocarpum var. lasiocarpumhairy-podded pepper-grass X6X
73BrassicaceaeLobularia maritima*sweet alyssum  1X
74BrassicaceaeSinapis arvensis*charlock  1 
75BrassicaceaeSisymbrium irio*London rocket X4X
76BrassicaceaeStreptanthella longirostrislongbeak streptanthella X1X
77BrassicaceaeThysanocarpus curvipesfringe-pod  1X
79CactaceaeEchinocereus engelmanniiEngelmann's hedgehog cactus  1X
80CactaceaeFerocactus cylindraceusCalifornia barrel cactusX 1X
81CactaceaeMammillaria dioicafish-hook cactus  3X
82CactaceaeOpuntia basilaris var. basilarisbeavertail cactusXX1X
83CactaceaeOpuntia bigeloviiteddy-bear chollaXX1X
84CactaceaeOpuntia echinocarpasilver cholla  1X
85CactaceaeOpuntia ganderiGander's chollaXX2X
86CactaceaeOpuntia ramosissimapencil chollaX  X
87CampanulaceaeNemacladus glanduliferus var. glanduliferusglandular nemacladus X X
88CapparaceaeIsomeris arboreabladderpod  1X
89CaryophyllaceaeAchyronychia cooperifrost mat X4X
90ChenopodiaceaeAtriplex canescens ssp. canescensfour-wing saltbush X X
91ChenopodiaceaeAtriplex hymenelytradesert holly  2X
92ChenopodiaceaeAtriplex polycarpacattle saltbush X X
93ChenopodiaceaeChenopodium murale*nettle-leaved goosefoot  3X
94ChenopodiaceaeChenopodium pratericolameadow goosefoot  1 
95ChenopodiaceaeMonolepis nuttallianaNuttall's poverty weed  1X
96ChenopodiaceaeSalsola paulsenii*Paulsen's Russian thistle  3 
97ChenopodiaceaeSalsola tragus*Russian thistle X X
98CrassulaceaeCrassula connatapygmy-weed X X
99CucurbitaceaeCucurbita palmatacoyote melon  2X
100CuscutaceaeCuscuta californica var. papillosapapillate dodder  1X
101EuphorbiaceaeChamaesyce micromeraSonoran spurge X X
102EuphorbiaceaeChamaesyce polycarpasmall-seeded spurge X2X
103EuphorbiaceaeChamaesyce setilobaYuma spurge  1X
104EuphorbiaceaeCroton californicusCalifornia croton X5X
105EuphorbiaceaeDitaxis lanceolatanarrowleaf ditaxis X5X
106EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia erianthabeetle spurge X X
107EuphorbiaceaeStillingia linearifolialinear-leaved stillingia  1X
108EuphorbiaceaeStillingia spinulosaannual stillingia X X
109FabaceaeAcacia greggiicatclawX 1X
110FabaceaeAstragalus didymocarpus var. dispermusdwarf white milk-vetch X5X
111FabaceaeAstragalus lentiginosus var. borreganusBorrego milk-vetch X X
112FabaceaeAstragalus palmeriPalmer's milk-vetch  2X
113FabaceaeDalea mollissilky dalea X2X
114FabaceaeDalea mollissimadowny dalea X X
115FabaceaeLotus rigidusdesert lotus  1X
116FabaceaeLotus salsuginosus var. brevivexillusshort-bannered coastal lotus X X
117FabaceaeLotus scoparius var. brevialatusshort-winged deerweed  1X
118FabaceaeLotus strigosusstrigose lotus X2X
119FabaceaeLupinus arizonicusArizona lupine X8X
120FabaceaeLupinus concinnusbajada lupineXX X
121FabaceaeLupinus hirsutissimusstinging lupine  1 
122FabaceaeLupinus microcarpus var. densifloruschick lupine  1 
123FabaceaeLupinus microcarpus var. microcarpuschick lupine X X
124FabaceaeLupinus sparsiflorusCoulter's lupine  2X
125FabaceaeMelilotus indicus*sourclover  3X
126FabaceaeProsopis glandulosa var. torreyanahoney mesquite X1X
127FabaceaeProsopis pubescensscrew-bean mesquite  1X
128FabaceaePsorothamnus emoryiEmory's indigo-bush X7X
129FabaceaePsorothamnus schottiiindigo bushXX7X
130FabaceaePsorothamnus spinosussmoke treeXX1X
131FouquieriaceaeFouquieria splendens ssp. splendensocotilloXX2X
132GeraniaceaeErodium cicutarium*redstem filareeXX2X
133GeraniaceaeErodium texanumTexas filaree  2X
134HydrophyllaceaeEmmenanthe penduliflora var. penduliflorawhispering bells X4X
135HydrophyllaceaeEucrypta chrysanthemifolia var. bipinnatifidaeucrypta  1X
136HydrophyllaceaeNama demissum var. demissumpurple mat  1X
137HydrophyllaceaePhacelia brachylobashort-lobed phacelia  2 
138HydrophyllaceaePhacelia crenulata var. minutifloralittle-flowered heliotrope phacelia X1X
139HydrophyllaceaePhacelia distanscommon phaceliaXX4X
140HydrophyllaceaePhacelia minorwild canterbury bells X3X
141KrameriaceaeKrameria erectaPima rhatany  1X
142KrameriaceaeKrameria grayiwhite rhatanyX 2X
143LamiaceaeHyptis emoryidesert lavenderXX4X
144LamiaceaeSalvia columbariaechiaX 2X
145LamiaceaeSalvia vaseyiVasey's sageX 2X
146LoasaceaeMentzelia affinisyellow blazing star X1X
147LoasaceaeMentzelia albicauliswhite-stemmed blazing star X  
148LoasaceaeMentzelia involucratabracted blazing star X1X
149LoasaceaePetalonyx thurberi ssp. thurberiThurber's sandpaper-plant X3X
150MalvaceaeEremalche exiliswhite mallow X1X
151MalvaceaeEremalche rotundifoliadesert five-spot X2X
152MalvaceaeHibiscus denudatusrock hibiscus  2X
153MalvaceaeMalva parviflora*cheeseweed X1 
154MalvaceaeSphaeralcea ambigua var. ambiguaapricot mallowX 2X
155NyctaginaceaeAbronia villosa var. villosahairy sand-verbena X10X
156NyctaginaceaeAllionia incarnatatrailing four o'clock X2X
157NyctaginaceaeMirabilis bigelovii var. retrorsawishbone plant  4X
158OnagraceaeCamissonia boothii ssp. condensataBooth's desert primroseXX3X
159OnagraceaeCamissonia californicaCalifornia suncupXX5X
160OnagraceaeCamissonia cardiophylla ssp. cardiophyllaheartleaf sun-cup X2X
161OnagraceaeCamissonia chamaenerioideslong-fruit suncup X X
162OnagraceaeCamissonia claviformis ssp. aurantiacabrown-eyed primrose  1X
163OnagraceaeCamissonia claviformis ssp. peirsoniibrown-eyed primrose X10X
164OnagraceaeCamissonia pallida ssp. pallidapale sun-cup X1X
165OnagraceaeOenothera deltoides ssp. deltoidesdune primrose X2X
166OrobanchaceaeOrobanche cooperiCooper's broom-rape X3X
167PapaveraceaeArgemone munitaprickly poppy  1X
168PapaveraceaeEschscholzia minutiflora ssp. minutiflorasmall-flowered poppy X6X
169PapaveraceaeEschscholzia parishiiParish's poppy X2X
170PlantaginaceaePlantago ovatadesert plantainXX4 
171PolemoniaceaeGilia latifoliabroad-leaf gilia  1X
172PolemoniaceaeGilia scopulorumrock gilia  1 
173PolemoniaceaeGilia stellatastar gilia X3X
174PolemoniaceaeLangloisia setosissima ssp. setosissimabristly langloisia  2X
175PolemoniaceaeLinanthus jonesiiJones' linanthus  1X
176PolemoniaceaeLoeseliastrum matthewsiidesert calico  3X
177PolemoniaceaeLoeseliastrum schottiiSchott's calico X X
178PolygonaceaeChorizanthe brevicornu var. brevicornubrittle spineflower X3X
179PolygonaceaeChorizanthe rigidadevil's spineflowerXX X
180PolygonaceaeEriogonum inflatumdesert trumpet  1X
181PolygonaceaeEriogonum reniformekidney-leaf buckwheat X X
182PolygonaceaeEriogonum thomasiiThomas' buckwheat  3X
183PolygonaceaeEriogonum trichopes var. trichopeslittle desert buckwheat X X
184PolygonaceaePterostegia drymarioidesthreadstem X1X
185PortulacaceaeCalyptridium monandrumsand cress X2X
186RafflesiaceaePilostyles thurberiThurber's pilostyles  2X
187ResedaceaeOligomeris linifolianarrowleaf oligomeris  1X
188RubiaceaeGalium stellatum var. eremicumstar-flowered bedstraw  1X
189SalicaceaeSalix exiguanarrowleaf willow X3X
190ScrophulariaceaeAntirrhinum coulterianumCoulter's snapdragon  1X
191ScrophulariaceaeCastilleja minor ssp. spiralislesser paintbrush  1X
192ScrophulariaceaeMimulus bigelovii var. bigeloviiBigelow's monkeyflower  3X
193ScrophulariaceaeMimulus guttatuscommon monkeyflower  1 
194ScrophulariaceaeMohavea confertifloraghost flower X1X
195ScrophulariaceaeVeronica anagallis-aquatica*water speedwell  2 
196SimmondsiaceaeSimmondsia chinensisjojobaX 3X
197SolanaceaeDatura discolordesert thornapple X2X
198SolanaceaeDatura wrightiisacred datura X1X
199SolanaceaeLycium andersoniiAnderson's desert-thorn  1X
200SolanaceaeLycium brevipes var. brevipesdesert-thorn  2X
201SolanaceaeNicotiana obtusifoliadesert tobacco  4X
202SolanaceaePhysalis crassifoliathick-leaved ground cherry X5X
203TamaricaceaeTamarix aphylla*athel X X
204ViscaceaePhoradendron californicumdesert mistletoe  1X
205ZygophyllaceaeFagonia laevisCalifornia fagoniaXX4X
206ZygophyllaceaeKallstroemia californicaCalifornia caltrop  1 
207ZygophyllaceaeLarrea tridentatacreosote bushXX9X
208ZygophyllaceaeTribulus terrestris*puncture-vine X X
209EphedraceaeEphedra californicadesert tea X X
210EphedraceaeEphedra fasciculata var. clokeyiClokey's ephedra  1X
211EphedraceaeEphedra nevadensisNevada ephedraX 1X
212LiliaceaeAgave desertidesert agave  1X
213LiliaceaeHesperocallis undulatadesert lily X2X
214PoaceaeAristida adscensionissix-weeks three-awn X X
215PoaceaeBouteloua aristidoides var. aristidoidesneedle grama X X
216PoaceaeBromus madritensis ssp. rubens*red brome X1X
217PoaceaeCenchrus echinatus*southern sandbur X  
218PoaceaeCynodon dactylon*Bermuda grass X X
219PoaceaeHordeum murinum ssp. glaucum*foxtail barley X  
220PoaceaeLeptochloa uninerviaMexican sprangletop  1 
221PoaceaePanicum miliaceum*broom-corn millet  1 
222PoaceaePennisetum setaceum*fountain grass  1X
223PoaceaePhalaris minor*little-seed canarygrass  1X
224PoaceaePleuraphis rigidabig galletaXX6X
225PoaceaePolypogon monspeliensis*rabbits-foot grass  3 
226PoaceaeSchismus arabicus*Mediterranean grass  1 
227PoaceaeSchismus barbatus*Mediterranean schismus X6 
228PoaceaeSetaria verticillata*hooked bristlegrass  2 
229PoaceaeSorghum bicolor*sorghum  1 
230TyphaceaeTypha domingensissouthern cattail  1 
231PteridaceaeCheilanthes parryiwoolly lipfernX 1X

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Copyright © 2007 by Tom Chester
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Last update: 29 December 2007