Flora of Hall Canyon, San Jacinto Mountains

Procedure For Compiling The Checklist
Species Checklist
Notes on Some Species

Fig. 1. Topo map showing the drainage basin of Hall Canyon. Essentially all the records in this flora come from the lower part of Hall Canyon. Most of those are probably within the area roughly outlined in red. Click on the map for a version without the red lines.


Hall Canyon is a southwest-draining canyon on the west side of the San Jacinto Mountains, on the southwest slopes of Black Mountain (Fig. 1; Google Map). It is best known for Lake Fulmor, a reservoir created by the damming of Indian Creek from the construction of Highway 243 (SR243), and for the UC James San Jacinto Mountain Reserve located just above Lake Fulmor.

Lake Fulmor is 6.8 miles north of Pine Cove on SR243, and 15.0 miles south of the SR243 exit on I-10. Hall Canyon is the upper part of the drainage of Indian Creek, beginning above SR243.

The canyon is named for Colonel Milton Sanders Hall, who constructed a wagon road from Hall City, near today's Cabazon, to what is called Lake Fulmor today, but was called "Little Strawberry Valley" in 1879. The purpose of the road was to log the timber in the upper reaches of Indian Creek, with a lumber camp at today's Lake Fulmor (Robinson and Risher, The San Jacintos, pp. 145, 149).

Hall's road was superceded by the Banning - Idyllwild Highway, surveyed by Alex C. Fulmor in 1933 and 1934, dedicated in 1950. The reservoir was created in 1948 by building the highway across Hall Canyon, rather than contouring into the canyon as the previous road did, and named for him (Robinson and Risher, pp. 150-151, 153).

The James Reserve was established in 1966, after Harry and Grace James sold their Trailfinders Camp (see Fig. 1) property to the University of California to become part of their newly-established Natural Reserve System. The James Reserve is one of the best known and most used of the UC Reserves. Many scientists fondly remember their time here.

Although the James Reserve itself is only 29 acres, it is surrounded by the 667 acre Hall Canyon Research Natural Area, which encompasses most of the rest of Hall Canyon above Lake Fulmor. See the General Technical Report Chapter for this RNA (pdf file), and a vegetation map and physical map of the Reserve

Procedure For Compiling The Checklist

The basis for this checklist was the excellent Hall Canyon Annotated Floristic List compiled by Ken Berg in August 1982. That list covered the entire Hall Canyon drainage including Lake Fulmor, and was "compiled from previous lists and data gathered by reserve staff, visiting researchers and instructors, and other reserve users". The most active contributors to that list were Oscar Clarke, Mildred Mathias, Frank Vasek, Andrew Sanders, and Ken Berg.

Berg's List also included informative sections on the physiography, climate, vegetation, and floristics of the area.

Berg's list contained 230 taxa (one more than the 229 taxa in the summary table). After updating the names to the 2012 Jepson Manual Second Edition, the list contained 228 taxa, with the deletions caused by combining the three former varieties of Festuca microstachys into just the species name.

Four of the species listed in Berg are not likely to be in Hall Canyon, and so were deleted from the checklist presented here. Two additional species listed in Berg were misdeterminations, and their names have been replaced with the probable correct determination. Two of the Chenopodium species in Berg probably are a single species with a different name. See Notes on Species Removed or Redetermined from Berg 1982 for information on these nine species.

A few other species are possible misdeterminations, but their occurrence here is not strongly ruled out, and hence remain in the Checklist. Those species are marked with a note in the "ID?" column, and discussed below the Checklist.

This checklist thus contains 221 taxa originally present in Berg's list. The high percentage of surviving taxa is a testimony to the high quality of Berg's list.

The checklist presented here was augmented by field surveys in Hall Canyon on conducted by the authors and colleagues, especially of the Nature Trail, on at least eight separate days, including one at Lake Fulmor. A total of 152 taxa were found in those surveys, of which one species (Cerastium glomeratum) has only a tentative determination.

Vouchers were searched on 2 October 2020 for ones with a locality of "Hall Canyon" or "James Reserve". The localities of all those vouchers were reviewed, and ones not clearly in Hall Canyon were tossed. The determinations of those vouchers were reviewed, and a small number were tossed as being likely misdetermination. Those possible misdeterminations are discussed in Notes on Rejected Vouchered Species. Since no search was made for vouchers that only had a locality of "Lake Fulmor", this flora might be somewhat incomplete for Lake Fulmor-only species.

This procedure left a total of 215 species from vouchers.

The James Reserve created an updated species list in 2007, with 9 additional taxa, and then a printed brochure in 2007, with 3 additional taxa, for a total of 12 additions. Some of those additions were rejected as being implausible; see Notes on Species Removed from later James Reserve Checklists.

iNaturalist was searched for possible additions to the list on 1 October 2020. This was an incomplete search, since so many observations were not determined to the species. One additional species was found, Pentagramma triangularis.

The checklist presented here, from the combination of the six sources, contains a total of 305 taxa, 221 (72%) from Berg's list; 216 (71%) from vouchers; 152 (50%) from field surveys; 12 (4%) from James Reserve 2007 additions; and 1 from iNaturalist.

Species Checklist

Basic information about the checklist presentation and links:

An asterisk before the Common Name indicates a non-native taxon.

The species checklist has a number of columns giving information about each taxon. The most important is the column with header ID?, indicating that the species might not be correctly determined. Notes on those species are given in the next section.

The column with header #V gives the number of vouchers for each taxon in Hall Canyon, up to a maximum of nine vouchers.

The column with header Abnd gives the abundance noted in Berg 1982, as follows: cmn = common; uncm = uncommon; rare. This column also serves to note those species originally reported in Berg 1982.

The column with header LF indicates if a taxon is only found at Lake Fulmor or in the immediately-surrounding area.

The last two columns, with headers 4S and NT, indicate whether a taxon was observed on the Four Saints Trail or James Reserve Nature Trail. If a number is given in those columns, it is a minimum estimate of the number of plants seen in the area of each trail, up to a maximum of 99 plants. An x in these columns indicate a taxon was observed, but no abundance estimate was made. One species, Pentagramma triangularis, has "iN" in the 4S column, indicating it has an observation at iNaturalist, and was not seen by us on that trail.

Version for printing, without other text on this page: html (8 pages) or pdf Clickbook booklet (2 double-sided pages). (See printing instructions for an explanation of these options)

#FamilID?Scientific Name
Link goes to the Jepson eFlora
(*)Common Name
Link goes to Calphotos
1SelagSelaginella asprellabluish spike-mossuncm
2AzollAzolla filiculoidesmosquito fern1LF
3BlechWoodwardia fimbriatagiant chain fern1cmn1
4DennsPteridium aquilinum var. pubescensbracken2uncm2099
5DryopPolystichum imbricans ssp. curtumcliff sword fernrare
6EquisEquisetum hyemale ssp. affinehorsetail2cmn2
7EquisEquisetum laevigatumsmooth scouring rush299
8PteriCheilanthes covilleibeady lipfernuncm
9PteriPentagramma triangularis ssp. triangularisgoldback ferniN
10WoodsAthyrium filix-femina var. cyclosorumsubarctic lady-fern2cmn3
11WoodsCystopteris fragilisbrittle bladder fernuncm
12CupreCalocedrus decurrensincense-cedar7cmn9999
13PinacAbies concolorwhite fircmn1520
14PinacPinus coulteriCoulter pine6cmn2050
15PinacPinus jeffreyiJeffrey pinecmn
16PinacPinus lambertianasugar pine2cmn5050
17PinacPinus ponderosa var. pacificaponderosa pine5cmn9999
18LauraUmbellularia californicaCalifornia bay1cmn6
19CeratCeratophyllum demersumcoon's tail4uncmLF
20AmaraAmaranthus albus*tumble pigweeduncm
21AnacaToxicodendron diversilobumpoison oakuncm
22ApiacAngelica tomentosawoolly angelica4cmn5?30
23ApiacTauschia argutasouthern tauschia10
24ApiacTauschia parishiiParish's tauschia3cmn1050
25ApocyApocynum androsaemifoliumspreading dogbane1uncm30
26ApocyAsclepias eriocarpaIndian milkweed1
27AraliHydrocotyle ranunculoidesfloating marsh-pennywort4LF
28AsterAchillea millefoliumyarrow2uncm5
29AsterAgoseris retrorsaspear-leaved mountain dandelion3
30AsterArtemisia douglasianamugwort1
31AsterArtemisia dracunculuswild tarragon3cmn1050
32AstersspArtemisia ludoviciana ssp. ludovicianasilver wormwoodcmn
33AsterChaenactis glabriuscula var. glabriusculayellow pincushion1
34AsterCirsium vulgare*bull thistleuncm
35AsterCorethrogyne filaginifoliaCalifornia-aster5cmn50
36AsterEricameria cuneata var. spathulatawide-leaved rock goldenbushcmn
37AsterEricameria nauseosa var. bernardinaSan Bernardino rubber rabbitbrushcmn52
38AsterErigeron foliosus var. foliosusleafy daisy7cmn3099
39AsterEriophyllum confertiflorum var. confertiflorumgolden yarrow2cmn30
40AsterGnaphalium palustrewestern marsh cudweed1uncm
41AsterHemizonella minimadwarf madia1cmn
42AsterHieracium albiflorumwhite hawkweed111
43AsterHulsea vestita ssp. callicarphabeautiful hulsea4cmn5
44AsterLessingia glandulifera var. glanduliferasticky lessingia3cmn1099
45AsterPseudognaphalium stramineumcotton-batting plant1
46AsterPseudognaphalium thermaleslender everlasting1uncm20
47AsterSolidago velutina ssp. californicagoldenrod4cmn5099
48AsterStephanomeria exigua ssp. deaneislender wreathplant1
49AsterStephanomeria virgatatwiggy wreath plant1cmn1
50AsterTragopogon dubius*yellow salsify1
51Aster??Tragopogon porrifolius*salsifyuncm
52AsterWyethia ovatasouthern mule's ears
53BetulAlnus rhombifoliawhite alder2cmn2
54BoragCryptantha intermedia var. intermediapopcorn flower2uncm12
55BoragCryptantha micrantha var. lepidamountain red-root cryptantha7cmn5099
56BoragCryptantha muricata var. jonesiiJones' prickly-nut cryptantha4cmn20
57BoragCryptantha simulanspine cryptantha2cmn
58BoragNemophila spatulataSierra nemophilacmn
59BoragPhacelia imbricata var. patulaimbricate phacelia3cmn2
60BoragPhacelia ramosissimabranching phaceliax
61BrassBoechera californicaCalifornia elegant rock-cress25
62BrassBoechera platyspermabroad-seeded rock-cress
63BrassBoechera xylopodaslender & beautiful rock-cress1cmn
64BrassErysimum capitatum var. capitatumwestern wallflower7cmn3
65BrassLepidium virginicum ssp. menziesiiwild pepper-grass2cmn1
66BrassSisymbrium altissimum*tumble-mustarduncm
67BrassStreptanthus bernardinusLaguna Mtns. jewel-flower1uncm10
68BrassTurritis glabratower mustard1uncm
69CampaHeterocodon rariflorumfew-flowered heterocodon2
70CampaNemacladus longiflorus var. longiflorusthread plant2cmn2
71CampaNemacladus parikhiaeParikh's threadstemuncm
72CampaTriodanis bifloraVenus looking-glassuncm
73CapriLonicera subspicata var. denudatasouthern honeysuckle3cmn20
74Caryo~Cerastium glomeratum*mouse-ear chickweed99
75CaryoDianthus armeria ssp. armeria*grass pink1LF
76CaryoSagina decumbens ssp. occidentaliswestern pearlwortuncm
77CaryoSilene verecundawhite catch-fly4cmn
78CaryoSpergularia rubra*red sandspurry1uncm
79CelasEuonymus occidentalis var. parishiiParish's burning bush8cmn50
80Cheno??Chenopodium atrovirensforest goosefootcmn
81ChenoChenopodium berlandieripit-seed goosefoot1uncm
82ChenoChenopodium fremontiiFremont's goosefoot110
83ConvoCalystegia occidentalis ssp. fulcratawestern morning-glory1cmn20
84Corna??Cornus nuttalliiPacific dogwood
85CornaCornus sericea ssp. occidentaliswestern dogwood3LF
86DatisDatisca glomerataDurango root1uncm
87EricaArctostaphylos glandulosaEastwood manzanitacmn
88EricaArctostaphylos pringlei ssp. drupaceapink-bracted manzanita7cmn9999
89EricaArctostaphylos pungensMexican manzanita5cmn1
90EricaChimaphila menziesiilittle prince's pine2cmn150
91EricaPterospora andromedeapinedrops1cmn120
92EricaPyrola aphyllaleafless wintergreen1iN
93EricaPyrola pictawhite-veined wintergreen1cmn30
94EricaRhododendron occidentalewestern azalea6cmn99
95EricaSarcodes sanguineasnow-plant5cmn4
96EuphoChamaesyce serpyllifolia ssp. hirtulahairy thyme-leafed spurge3cmn
97EuphoEuphorbia luridawoodland spurge2cmn1
98FabacAcmispon americanus var. americanusSpanish clover31
99FabacAcmispon argophyllus var. argophyllussouthern California silver-lotus1
100FabacAcmispon grandiflorus var. grandifloruschaparral lotus
101FabacAcmispon heermannii var. heermanniisilky lotus130
102FabacAcmispon nevadensis var. nevadensisSierra Nevada lotus7cmn1520
103FabacAcmispon strigosusstrigose lotus2cmn10
104FabacAstragalus douglasii var. parishiiParish' Jacumba milk-vetch1LF
105FabacHosackia crassifolia var. crassifoliabroad-leaved lotus9cmn5
106FabacHosackia oblongifolia var. oblongifoliastreambank lotus1cmn30
107FabacLupinus bicolordwarf lupineuncm
108FabacLupinus concinnusbajada lupinecmn
109FabacLupinus excubitus var. austromontanusmountain grape-soda lupine1cmn
110FabacLupinus formosus var. formosuswestern lupine120
111FabacLupinus hyacinthinusSan Jacinto lupine4cmn
112FabacLupinus latifolius var. parishiiParish's lupinecmn2
113FabacTrifolium microcephalumsmall-head field clover2uncm
114FabacTrifolium obtusiflorumcreek cloveruncm
115FabacTrifolium variegatumvariegated clover7
116FagacChrysolepis sempervirensbush chinquapinuncm
117FagacQuercus chrysolepiscanyon live oak4cmn9999
118FagacQuercus kelloggiiCalifornia black oak7cmn9950
119FagacQuercus wislizeni var. frutescensinterior live oak3cmn350
120FagacQuercus Xmorehusoracle oakuncm1
121GentiFrasera parryiParry's green-gentian2cmn3
122GeranErodium cicutarium*redstem filareecmn
123GrossRibes malvaceum var. viridifoliumchaparral currantuncm12
124GrossRibes nevadensemountain pink currant4cmn599
125GrossRibes roezlii var. roezliiSierra gooseberryuncm1
126HalorMyriophyllum sibiricumSiberian milfoiluncmLF
127HyperHypericum anagalloidestinker's pennyuncm
128HyperHypericum scouleriScouler's St. Johnswort1uncm
129LamiaMentha spicata*spearmintuncm
130LamiaMonardella breweri ssp. lanceolatamustang mint3cmn99
131LamiaMonardella nanashort-flowered monardella9cmn9950
132LamiaScutellaria siphocampyloidescurve-flowered skullcap4cmn99
133LamiaStachys rigidarigid hedge-nettle2cmn30
134LamiaTrichostema austromontanum ssp. austromontanumsouthern bluecurls1uncm
135Lamia??Trichostema lanatumwoolly bluecurls2uncm
136LinacLinum lewisii var. lewisiiLewis' flax2cmn20
137LoasaMentzelia congestaclustered blazing staruncm
138MontiCalyptridium monandrumsand cress2cmn
139MontiCalyptridium parryi var. parryiParry's sand cress
140MontiClaytonia parviflora ssp. viridisgreen miner's lettucecmnx10
141MontiClaytonia perfoliata ssp. mexicanasouthern miner's lettucecmn
142MontiClaytonia rubrared-stemmed spring beautyx
143MontiMontia fontanawater chickweed1LF
144OnagrCamissonia strigulosastrigose suncup4
145OnagrCamissoniopsis confusaSan Bernardino suncup2~20
146OnagrCamissoniopsis hirtellafield suncup2cmn
147Onagr??Camissoniopsis intermediaintermediate suncupscmn
148OnagrClarkia rhomboideadiamond-petaled clarkia2cmn30
149OnagrEpilobium canum ssp. latifoliummountain California-fuchsia1cmn99
150OnagrEpilobium ciliatumwillowherb1cmn
151OnagrEpilobium ciliatum ssp. glandulosumglandular willowherb1LF
152OnagrEpilobium glaberrimum ssp. glaberrimumglaucus willowherb4cmn
153OnagrEpilobium hallianumHall's willowherb1
154OnagrEpilobium lactiflorumwhite-flowered willowherbcmn
155OnagrGayophytum diffusum ssp. parviflorumgroundsmoke4cmn
156OnagrGayophytum oligospermumpinegrove groundsmoke2099
157OnagrLudwigia peploides ssp. peploidesfloating water-primrose5
158OnagrOenothera elata ssp. hirsutissimaHooker's evening-primroseuncm
159OrobaCastilleja applegatei ssp. martiniiMartin's paintbrush6cmn40
160OrobaCastilleja minor ssp. spiralislesser paintbrush2uncm3
161OrobaCordylanthus neviniiNevin's bird's beak1
162OrobaCordylanthus rigidus ssp. setigerbristly bird's beak1cmn209
163OrobaOrobanche fasciculataclustered broomrape1
164OrobaOrobanche parishii ssp. parishiiParish's broomrape3
165OrobaPedicularis semibarbatapine lousewortrare
166PapavEschscholzia californicaCalifornia poppy
167PhrymMimulus brevipeswide-throated yellow monkeyflower4cmn99
168PhrymMimulus breweriBrewer's monkeyflower1
169PhrymMimulus cardinalisscarlet monkeyflower1cmn10
170PhrymMimulus diffususPalomar monkeyflower1uncm
171PhrymMimulus floribundusfloriferous monkeyflower3cmn
172PhrymMimulus fremontii var. fremontiiFremont's monkeyflower7cmn99
173PhrymMimulus guttatuscommon monkeyflower5cmn99
174PhrymMimulus longiflorus ssp. calycinushairy bush monkeyfloweruncm
175PhrymMimulus moschatusmusk monkeyflower2cmn
176PhrymMimulus nasutusshy monkeyfloweruncm
177PhrymMimulus pilosusfalse monkeyflower7cmn20
178PlantAntirrhinum coulterianumCoulter's snapdragon3uncm
179PlantCollinsia concolorsouthern Chinese houses1uncm
180PlantHippuris vulgariscommon mares-tail1cmnLF
181PlantKeckiella ternata var. ternatawhorledleaf penstemonuncm1
182PlantPenstemon centranthifoliusscarlet bugler1cmn30
183PlantPenstemon grinnellii var. grinnelliiGrinnell's beardtongue
184PlantPenstemon labrosusSan Gabriel beardtongue2cmn99
185PlantPenstemon rostriflorusbeaked penstemoncmn
186PlantPenstemon spectabilis var. spectabilisshowy penstemoncmn
187PlantPlantago lanceolata*English plantain2cmn20
188PolemCollomia grandifloralarge-flowered collomiauncm
189PolemEriastrum densifolium ssp. austromontanumsouthern mountain woolly-star1cmn40
190PolemGilia capitata ssp. abrotanifoliaglobe gilia1cmn
191PolemGilia diegensiscoastal giliauncm8
192PolemGilia ochroleuca ssp. exilisvolcanic gilia4uncm
193PolemLeptosiphon ciliatuswhisker-brush6cmn9999
194PolemLinanthus pungensgranite prickly phlox
195PolemSaltugilia splendens ssp. splendenssplendid gilia5cmnx
196PolygEriogonum apiculatumSan Jacinto buckwheat2cmn
197PolygEriogonum davidsoniiDavidson's buckwheat2cmn55
198PolygEriogonum fasciculatum var. polifoliumCalifornia buckwheatcmn1
199PolygEriogonum molestumpineland buckwheat3
200PolygEriogonum nudum var. pauciflorumnaked buckwheat3cmn1020
201PolygEriogonum parishiiParish's buckwheatuncm
202PolygEriogonum saxatilerock buckwheatuncm
203PolygEriogonum wrightii var. membranaceumWright's buckwheat5cmn5099
204PolygRumex acetosella*common sheep sorrel2
205PolygRumex californicuswillow-leaved dock1cmn1
206Polyg??Rumex salicifoliuswillow-leaved dock4
207PolygSidotheca caryophylloideschickweed oxytheca4
208PolygSidotheca trilobatathree-lobed oxythecacmn1025
209RanunAquilegia formosawestern columbine2cmn20
210RanunClematis ligusticifoliavirgin's bower1uncm
211RanunDelphinium patens ssp. montanumspreading larkspur2
212RanunRanunculus aquatiliswater crowfoot5cmnLF
213RanunRanunculus sceleratus var. sceleratuscursed crowfoot1cmnLF
214RanunThalictrum fendleri var. fendleriFendler's meadow-rue9cmn15
215RhamnCeanothus cordulatusmountain whitethornuncm
216RhamnCeanothus leucodermischaparral whitethorn4cmn40
217RhamnCeanothus palmeriPalmer's ceanothus4cmn1030
218RhamnsspFrangula californica ssp. cuspidataSierra hoary coffeeberry350
219RosacAdenostoma fasciculatumchamiseuncm
220RosacAmelanchier utahensisUtah service-berry2
221RosacCercocarpus betuloides var. betuloidesbirch-leaf mountain-mahogany1
222RosacDrymocallis glandulosa var. viscidasticky cinquefoil4cmn130
223RosacFragaria vescawoodland strawberry6cmn99
224RosacHorkelia clevelandii var. clevelandiiCleveland's horkelia7cmn20
225RosacPrunus emarginatabitter cherrycmn
226RosacRosa californicaCalifornia wild rose4cmn20
227RosacRubus parviflorusthimbleberry1cmn20
228RubiaGalium angustifolium ssp. angustifoliumnarrowleaf bedstraw140
229RubiaGalium angustifolium ssp. jacinticumSan Jacinto Mtns. bedstraw9cmn9999
230RubiaGalium aparinecommon bedstrawcmn2
231SalicSalix lasiolepisarroyo willowcmn
232SalicSalix luteayellow willow5cmn1
233SaxifLithophragma affinewoodland star1cmn
234ScropScrophularia californicaCalifornia bee plantuncm
235ScropVerbascum thapsus*common mulleinuncm6
236UrticUrtica dioica ssp. holosericeastinging nettleuncm10
237ViolaViola purpurea ssp. quercetorumgoosefoot yellow violetcmn510
238ViscaArceuthobium campylopodumpine dwarf-mistletoecmn11
239ViscaPhoradendron juniperinumincense-cedar mistletoe3cmn
240ViscaPhoradendron serotinum ssp. tomentosumoak mistletoe2cmn2
241AgavaHesperoyucca whippleichaparral yucca1cmn20
242AlismEchinodorus berteroiburheadLF
243AlliaAllium burlewiiBurlew's onionuncm
244AlliaAllium campanulatumdusky onion1
245AraceLemna gibbaswollen duckweed2LF
246AraceLemna minorcommon duckweed4
247AraceLemna valdivianavaldivia duckweeduncm
248CyperCarex athrostachyaslender-beak sedge3
249CyperCarex fractafragile sheath sedge4cmn250
250Cyper??Carex micropterasmall-wing sedge
251CyperCarex multicaulisforest sedge6cmn105
252CyperCarex pellitawoolly sedge
253CyperCarex rossiiRoss' sedge1LF
254CyperCarex sartwellianaYosemite sedge3
255CyperCarex sentaswamp sedge2cmn50
256CyperCarex subfuscabrown sedge4
257CyperCyperus squarrosusbearded flatsedge1uncm
258CyperEleocharis montevidensissand spikerushuncm
259CyperEleocharis parishiiParish's spikerush1
260HydroEgeria densa*Brazilian water weed1LF
261IridaSisyrinchium bellumblue-eyed grass
262JuncaJuncus balticus ssp. aterwire rushcmn
263JuncaJuncus bufonius var. occidentaliswestern toad rush1uncm
264JuncaJuncus effusus ssp. austrocalifornicusSonoran rush1uncm
265JuncaJuncus kelloggiiKellogg's dwarf rushuncm
266JuncaJuncus macrandruslong-anthered rush1uncm
267JuncaJuncus mexicanusMexican rush199
268JuncaJuncus oxymerispointed rush2
269JuncaJuncus rugulosuswrinkled rushuncm
270JuncaJuncus tiehmiiTiehm's rush4
271JuncaLuzula comosahairy wood rush3cmn
272LiliaCalochortus invenustusplain mariposa lily1
273LiliaCalochortus splendenssplendid mariposa lily1uncm
274LiliaLilium parryilemon lily2cmn15
275OrchiCorallorhiza maculataspotted coralroot1uncm30
276OrchiEpipactis giganteastream orchid2uncm10
277PoaceAgrostis exarataspike bentgrass16
278PoaceAgrostis scabrarough bentgrass1uncm
279PoaceAlopecurus aequalis var. aequalisshort-awn foxtail5uncm
280PoacevarBromus carinatus var. carinatusCalifornia brome2cmn99
281PoaceBromus grandistall brome3LF
282PoaceBromus halliiHall's brome3cmn50?2
283PoaceBromus tectorum*downy brome3cmn9999
284PoaceDactylis glomerata*orchard-grass
285PoaceDeschampsia elongataslender hairgrass25
286PoaceElymus elymoidessquirreltail3cmn220
287PoaceElymus glaucus ssp. glaucusblue wildrye4cmn99
288PoaceElymus hispidus*intermediate wheatgrass1
289PoaceElymus stebbinsiiStebbins' wildrye1cmn
290PoaceElymus trachycaulus ssp. trachycaulusslender wheatgrassuncm
291PoaceFestuca microstachyssmall fescue7uncm9920
292PoaceFestuca myuros*rattail fescue4cmn40
293PoaceKoeleria macranthaJune grass1uncm~213
294PoaceMelica imperfectacoast-range melic115
295PoaceMuhlenbergia andinafoxtail muhly3
296PoaceMuhlenbergia filiformispullup muhly3
297PoaceMuhlenbergia rigensdeergrass1cmn99
298PoacePoa annua*annual blue grass1uncm
299PoacePoa bulbosa ssp. vivipara*bulbous blue grass1
300PoacePoa pratensis ssp. pratensis*Kentucky blue grass1uncm
301PoacePoa secunda ssp. juncifoliarush blue grass
302PoacePoa secunda ssp. secundaone-sided bluegrass1uncm
303PoaceStipa latiglumiswide-glumed needle grass2uncm3020
304PoaceTrisetum canescenstall trisetum1
305PotamPotamogeton pusillussmall pondweed2LF
306ThemiBloomeria croceagoldenstar2uncm30
307ThemiDichelostemma capitatum ssp. capitatumblue dicks3cmn16
308TyphaTypha latifoliabroadleaf cattail2cmnLF

Notes on Some Species

Notes are first given for the species marked in the Checklist with an entry in the "ID?" column, with the species given in alphabetical order by scientific name. Those species are followed by notes on other species in the Checklist; then species removed or redetermined from the Berg 1982 list, and then by notes on vouchered species whose determination was rejected.

Species in the Checklist with an entry in the "ID?" column

Artemisia ludoviciana ssp. ludoviciana. This taxon is only from Berg 1982, despite it being given as "common". The usual subspecies encountered in the San Jacinto Mountains is ssp. incompta, with deeply-lobed leaves. Subspecies ludoviciana has entire to toothed or shallowly-lobed leaves.

Bromus carinatus var. carinatus. The separation between var. carinatus and var. marginatus is less than clear in the San Jacinto Mountains. The Jepson Manual key to separate them is the lemma awn length longer or shorter than 7 mm. Most of our plants have an awn length of exactly 7 mm. The two varieties were combined into var. carinatus in the first edition of the Jepson Manual, but separated again in the second edition.

Camissoniopsis intermedia. This species is very close to C. confusa, which is by far our dominant Camissoniopsis species in the San Jacinto Mountains. C. intermedia is more of a coastal species. However, a small number of vouchers in the San Jacinto Mountains have been determined as C. intermedia, so it is possible it exists here, but should be checked. The main difference is that C. confusa is mostly a grayish plant, and C. intermedia is mostly not grayish. C. intermedia also has smaller flowers.

Carex microptera. This species is very similar to C. abrupta, which is the only one of these two species vouchered in the San Jacinto Mountains. C. microptera was an addition in the 2007 James Reserve Plant, where it was noted as "rare", with no specific known location for it.

Cerastium glomeratum. A patch of finished plants that probably was this species was observed near the beginning of the Nature Trail on 6 July 2016, but the plants were too far gone to be positively identified in the field.

Chenopodium atrovirens, C. incognitum = C. hians, C. pratericola. These three species are very similar, with C. atrovirens distinguished from the other two by "Leaf blade length to 3 x width" for it, and "Leaf blade length 3 to many x width" for the other two. C. atrovirens is common in the San Jacinto Mountains, and is the likely determination of the plants here since it sometimes has some leaves slightly longer than 3 x width. It turned out that the type specimen of C. incognitum was indistinguishable from C. hians, so the name C. incognitum is no longer in use.

Cornus nuttallii. This is a very showy species, when in bloom, that is very rare in the San Jacinto Mountains. It has not been vouchered in Hall Canyon, nor was it present in Berg 1982. The source of this entry in the checklist was the printed brochure of the James Reserve plant list from March 2007. It is possible this is a misdetermination of Cornus sericea ssp. occidentalis, which also was not in Berg 1982, but which has three vouchers from the Lake Fulmor area. The voucher of C. sericea by Sanders notes "reportedly introduced to this site from elsewhere in the San Jacinto Mtns. by Harry James".

Frangula californica ssp. cuspidata. The Frangula subspecies are rarely found in pure form. In the San Jacinto Mountains, plants corresponding to ssp. cuspidata are frequently found growing with plants corresponding to ssp. californica. Vouchers in Hall Canyon are evenly divided between the two subspecies. We have arbitrarily decided to continue with ssp. cuspidata on this list, since that is the subspecies used in the 2007 James Reserve Plant list.

Rumex salicifolius. The usual species at the elevation of Hall Canyon is R. californicus, which used to be known as R. salicifolius var. denticulatus. Although three of the four vouchers from Hall Canyon explicitly say var. salicifolius, we think that is unlikely to be the case. In the San Jacinto Mountains, var. salicifolius is a higher-elevation taxon.

Tragopogon porrifolius. This taxon is only from Berg 1982, and is listed as "uncommon". This species is not otherwise known to occur in the San Jacinto Mountains. We suspect this entry was a misdetermined T. dubius, which unfortunately is fairly common in the San Jacinto Mountains. These two species are distinguished by the color of their flowers, purple for T. porrifolius and pale yellow for T. dubius.

Trichostema lanatum. The usual high-elevation species is T. parishii, with T. lanatum mostly below 2000 feet elevation. But there are vouchers of T. lanatum not terribly far away from Hall Canyon, so we have left this determination in the Checklist. These two species require detailed measurements to separate them. The key to distinguish these two species is corolla tube 4 to 7 mm for T. parishii and 9 to 14 mm for T. lanatum.

Notes on other Species in the Checklist

Pinus jeffreyi, P. ponderosa. All the yellow pines in lower Hall Canyon in the vicinity of the Creek appear to be P. ponderosa. P. jeffreyi is almost surely the dominant yellow pine in upper Hall Canyon, and perhaps is also found on the ridgelines bounding Hall Canyon. See Pinus jeffreyi and P. ponderosa var. pacifica.

Notes on Species Removed or Redetermined from Berg 1982

Carex nebrascensis, C. senta. These two species are often confused, but in the San Jacinto Mountains, the difference is striking. C. nebrascensis is a much shorter plant, is glaucous, and grows in bogs at higher elevation. Of these two, Berg 1982 listed on C. nebrascensis, and said it was common in Hall Canyon. C. senta is the only one of these two species present in Hall Canyon, and it is indeed common. Hence we have replaced Berg's C. nebrascensis with C. senta, and not accepted it in subsequent James Reserve lists that listed both species.

Ceanothus integerrimus. C. integerrimus is so close to C. palmeri that determinations of some vouchers have gone back and forth over the years. The key to separate them is whether the leaves are 3-ribbed from base (C. integgerimus var. macrothyrsus), or generally 1-ribbed from base (C. palmeri). The problem is that C. palmeri has leaves that are "1 or ± 3 ribbed from base". Most of the plants in the San Jacinto Mountains are indeed 1 ribbed from base, and most of the vouchers from here are now determined as C. palmeri. It is highly doubtful that we have both species present in the San Jacinto Mountains, but it is apparently difficult to be absolutely sure.

Eriogonum wrightii ssp. subscaposum. For at least eleven years, Tom has been concerned by how different many of the plants he has called var. subscaposum in the San Jacinto Mountains are from the subscaposum plants in the San Gabriel Mountains. In the past, Tom used the Jepson Manual key to call matted plants var. "subscaposum", and non-matted plants var. "membranaceum":

74. Herb, loosely to compactly matted ==> var. subscaposum

74' Shrub or subshrub ==> var. membranaceum

The ones that bothered Tom were the "loosely compacted" ones in the San Jacinto Mountains.

Alas, this still seemed problematic since there are five matted plants on the top of Suicide Rock, surrounded by many not-so-matted plants. Tom remembers puzzling over those until he finally decided that those matted plants had to be forms of membranaceum, since they appeared to be just the end of a gradient in matted-ness. It appeared how matted a plant was depends on elevation and perhaps exposure, with the stems growing shorter at higher elevation in exposed places.

Fortunately, Tom finally learned that there was an easy killer discriminant between the two varieties: whether the leaf bases ring the stem or not, which is the basis for the common name of "ringstem" for var. membranaceum. James Reveal, in the Flora of North American treatment of var. membranaceum, wrote:

The ring-like petiole bases that surround the node are distinctive, being seen otherwise only in some of the perennial species of Chorizanthe in Chile.

Don Rideout has a great iNaturalist pix from SR74 in Garner Valley that clearly shows the "ringstem" since the leaves along the stem have turned brown, along with their bases. Click on the second pix there, and then click on it again to expand it to see those brown rings along the stem.

With that killer distinction, it appears that in the San Jacinto Mountains, the true subscaposum is a tightly-matted plant, found only in at most four places, all ridgelines: Fuller Ridge, upper Tahquitz Ridge, Hidden Divide Ridge, and possibly the Skyline Trail.

Thus it is extremely unlikely that var. subscaposum exists in Hall Canyon, and we have deleted it from the flora.

Gilia sinuata, G. diegensis. The white variant of G. diegensis, which is quite common in southern California, is sometimes mistaken as being G. sinuata. G. sinuata has its stamens and style only reaching the base of its corolla lobes, whereas G. diegensis has its stamens and style reaching roughly to the middle of the corolla lobes. Mark Porter, the Jepson Manual author, kindly confirmed that G. sinuata is a transmontane (DMoj and edge DMoj) taxon, and is not found at SnJt.

Orobanche uniflora. This entry in Berg 1982 really puzzles us. As far as we know, there is only a single occurrence of O. uniflora in the San Jacinto Mountains, in Strawberry Gorge, parasitic on Sedum or Micranthes.

We can think of only two possibilities for the misdetermination:

  1. Our common similar Orobanche is O. fasciculata, which generally has 5 to 20 flowers per plant. O. uniflora has only one or two flowers per plant. Possibly someone observed an O. fasciculata plant with few flowers and called it O. uniflora. This has been known to happen in the past elsewhere.

  2. Someone observed an aborted Allium bud, which does resemble a bud or fruit of O. uniflora.

Trifolium cyathiferum. This species is listed as "uncommon" in Berk 1982, but it is not known to be in southern California. It appears next to T. microcephalum in the key, which is common in southern California. Perhaps this entry was a misdetermination of T. microcephalum, also in Berg 1982. Both species were listed as "uncommon" in Hall Canyon.

Notes on Species Removed from later James Reserve Checklists

Agoseris grandiflora. This is only from the 2007 online Flora of the James Reserve, and is most likely a misdetermination of A. retrorsa, which is common in the San Jacinto Mountains.

Delphinium parryi. Delphinium species are notoriously difficult to tell apart. From vouchers and our observations, it is highly likely that only D. patens is found in Hall Canyon; see Delphinium parryi, blue larkspur, and D. patens, spreading larkspur in the San Jacinto Mountains

Dudleya abramsii. This is only from the 2007 online Flora of the James Reserve. In the San Jacinto Mountains, this species is only known from the Garner Valley area in pebble plain type areas. It seems very unlikely to be present in Hall Canyon. It is possible this was a misdetermination of D. saxosa, which is our common Dudleya in the San Jacinto Mountains. However, there are no known locations of any Dudleya species anywhere near Hall Canyon, so we have left it off the checklist.

Lupinus excubitus var. hallii. This is from the 2017 James Reserve Vascular Plants Brochure, and is almost surely a misdetermination of var. austromontanus, the common variety in the San Jacinto Mountains. Variety hallii is a much taller plant that lives in chaparral. There is also a Thorne et al voucher of var. hallii from Hall Canyon, but it has a duplicate voucher determined as var. austromontanus.

Oenothera elata ssp. hookeri. This is only from the 2017 James Reserve Vascular Plants Brochure. The inland subspecies is ssp. hirsutissima. This is an easily-understood frequent misdetermination, since the common name is Hooker's Evening Primrose.

Notes on Rejected Vouchered Species

The scientific name is linked to the voucher for the species.

Carex deflexa var. boottii. This species is not known from the San Jacinto Mountains, and is quite close to C. rossii, which is common here. This voucher has two duplicates both determined as C. rossii: RSA0079909 and GH274462. The latter voucher has a note on the determination made by the Carex expert P.F. Zika in 2011, that it was "differing in peri nerves".

Epilobium canescens. We have no idea what species this refers to; the name is not present in the Jepson Interchange or in Calflora.

Gayophytum ramosissimum. The Jepson eFlora only gives this species as being well north of southern California. This species is very close to G. diffusum, which is found here.

Juncus macrophyllus. There is a lot of confusion among J. longistylis and J. macrophyllus, probably resulting from the omission of J. longistylis in Munz 1974 Flora of Southern California. Using Munz, our plants were called J. macrophyllus. The Jepson Manual separated those two species. J. macrophyllus in general has many more inflorescence clusters than J. longistylis. Perhaps because of the past confusion, the Jepson eflora explicitly states that J. macrophyllus is not found in the San jacinto Mountains.

Lupinus andersonii. There is a lot of confusion between L. andersonii and L. hyacinthinus, since they are extremely-similar species, with the key to distinguish them being just a difference of one mm in flower length separating the largest flower of L. andersonii and the smallest flower of L. hyacinthinus:

103. Flower 9–12 mm; NW, SNH, WTR, SnBr, SNE ..... L. andersonii

103' Flower 13–16 mm; SnGb, SnBr, PR ..... L. hyacinthinus

Our plants in the San Jacinto Mountains are L. hyacinthinus, with somewhat larger flowers. Note that the key explicitly rules out SnJt for L. andersonii. In addition, our flower color is always purple, whereas the closest plants of L. andersonii, in SnBr, have white to yellow flowers.

Mimulus bigelovii var. bigelovii. This taxon is very close to M. fremontii. Our plants are all M. fremontii; M. bigelovii is a desert species whose nearest location to here is in the desert to the east of the San Jacinto Mountains. This voucher has a duplicate which is determined as M. fremontii.

Ranunculus eschscholtzii var. oxynotus. This is another unusual Thorne voucher. This species is an alpine species, only found in the San Jacinto Mountains in a snowy cave just below San Jacinto Peak. This voucher was from Lake Fulmor, where two Ranunculus species are vouchered, R. aquatilis and R. sceleratus.

Scutellaria antirrhinoides. This is another unusual Thorne voucher. S. antirrhinoides does not live anyplace close to southern California, being found north of San Francisco. The dupe of this voucher is determined as S. siphocampyloides, our common species here.

Spirodela polyrhiza. Although it is certainly possible this species is found at Lake Fulmor, we suspect this 1961 voucher is actually a misdetermined Lemna species. This genus is not known from the Transverse Range or Peninsular Range in southern California, and the duckweed expert Wayne Armstrong has collected at Lake Fulmor in 1985.

Trichostema oblongum. This species is only found north of southern California. This voucher is probably a misdetermined T. austromontanum, which is right next to it in the Jepson Manual key.

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