Flora of the Pine Belt of the San Gabriel Mountains

by RT and Shaun Hawke

We first started this project in 1987 while living in Wrightwood, cataloging all the plants in the immediate area of the coniferous forest above 6000 feet in elevation. When we decided to expand the flora to cover the entire San Gabriel mountain range, we had already realized that chaparral and desert species reached over 6000 feet and that coniferous forests grew well below 6000 feet. We thus decided to have the flora contain all species above 6000 feet. Plant species below 6000 feet were added if they were a conifer or associated with a coniferous forest. Some chaparral species, therefore, were included. We found using any criteria as a boundary to be problematic.

The original intent of the project was to produce a user-friendly book. Ed Larue created many illustrations in the earlier years, but a decision was made to instead have color photographs. We have photographed every plant in this flora, except for the handful that have been added from other sources. These photographs may be online at a later date.

Taxa with the species name in parentheses are provisional, not certain, identifications. Taxa with the species name in parentheses with a question mark are only possible, not even provisional, identifications. Those possible identifications generally have some conflict with the observed plants. An asterisk before the common name indicates a taxon not-native to California.

Notes for some species are hyperlinked to the Latin Name.

The common names given in this list were taken from the Chester and Strong database except for cheatgrass, a name we prefer to downy brome. This was done simply in order to put this list online as rapidly as possible.

Some of our identifications have been extended one level deeper by Tom Chester when it was unambiguous, or nearly so, to do so. The unambiguous cases were mostly assignments of a subspecies or a variety when that was the only subspecies or variety of that species in the San Gabriel Mountains. An example of a nearly unambiguous refinement is where the Salix sp. in our original list became S. lasiolepis. This was done since Chester and Strong have found that S. lasiolepis is the most abundant species by far in the Pine Belt of the San Gabriel Mountains. See the list of such changes. We thank Chester and Strong for those refinements.

See also the list of names updated to the Jepson Manual equivalents.

We thank Tom Chester for all of his hard work for getting this flora online.

Version for printing, without lines and other text on this page (12 pages)

#Latin Name(*)Common Name


CupressaceaeCypress Family
1Calocedrus decurrensincense-cedar
2Juniperus occidentalis var. australisSierra juniper
EphedraceaeEphredra Family
3Ephedra nevadensisNevada ephedra
4Ephedra (viridis)green ephedra
PinaceaePine Family
5Abies concolorwhite fir
6Pinus attenuataknobcone pine
7Pinus contorta ssp. murrayanalodgepole pine
8Pinus coulteriCoulter pine
9Pinus flexilislimber pine
10Pinus jeffreyiJeffrey pine
11Pinus lambertianasugar pine
12Pinus monophyllapinyon pine
13Pinus ponderosaponderosa pine
14Pseudotsuga macrocarpabig cone douglas-fir
TaxodiaceaeBald Cypress Family
15Sequoiadendron giganteumgiant sequoia


AceraceaeMaple Family
16Acer macrophyllumbigleaf maple
AnacardiaceaeSumac Family
17Rhus trilobatabasketbush
ApiaceaeCarrot Family
18Lomatium dissectumfern-leaved lomatium
19Lomatium nevadense var. parishiiParish's lomatium
20Oreonana vestitawoolly mountain-parsley
21Osmorhiza chilensismountain sweet-cicely
22Perideridia (parishii)+Parish's yampah
23Sphenosciadium capitellatumranger's buttons
24Tauschia parishiiParish's tauschia
ApocynaceaeDogbane Family
25Apocynum androsaemifoliumspreading dogbane
26Apocynum cannabinumIndian hemp
27Cycladenia humilis var. venustashowy cycladenia
AsclepiadaceaeMilkweed Family
28Asclepias californicaCalifornia milkweed
29Asclepias sp.milkweed
AsteraceaeSunflower Family
30Achillea millefoliumyarrow
31Agoseris retrorsaspear-leaved mountain dandelion
32Ambrosia acanthicarpabur-ragweed
33Anisocoma acaulisscale-bud
34Antennaria dimorphalow pussytoes
35Artemisia biennis*biennial sagewort
36Artemisia douglasianamugwort
37Artemisia dracunculuswild tarragon
38Artemisia ludovicianasilver wormwood
39Artemisia tridentatabig sagebrush
40Brickellia californicaCalifornia brickellbush
41Brickellia (microphylla?)+little-leaved brickellia
42Chaenactis glabriuscula var. glabriusculayellow pincushion
43Chaenactis santolinoidessantolina pincushion
44Chaenactis xantianaXantus' chaenactis
45Chrysothamnus nauseosuscommon rabbitbrush
46Cirsium occidentale var. californicumCalifornia thistle
47Coreopsis bigeloviiBigelow's coreopsis
48Crepis nanadwarf hawksbeard
49Ericameria cuneatarock goldenbush
50Ericameria linearifolianarrowleaf goldenbush
51Erigeron (breweri)Brewer's fleabane
52Erigeron foliosus var. foliosusleafy daisy
53Eriophyllum confertiflorum var. confertiflorumgolden yarrow
54Gnaphalium (stramineum; possibly canescens ssp. thermale)+cotton-batting plant
55Helenium bigeloviiBigelow's sneezeweed
56Heterotheca sessiliflorafalse goldenaster
57Hieracium albiflorumwhite hawkweed
58Hulsea heterochromared-rayed hulsea
59Hulsea vestita ssp. gabrielensis+San Gabriel Mtns. sunflower
60Hulsea vestita ssp. ?+hulsea
61Lactuca serriola*prickly lettuce
62Lepidospartum squamatumscale-broom
63Lessingia filaginifolia var. filaginifoliaCalifornia-aster
64Lessingia glanduliferavalley vinegar-weed
65Machaeranthera canescenshoary-aster
66Malacothrix glabratadesert dandelion
67Senecio flaccidus var. douglasiibush senecio
68Senecio ionophyllusTehachapi ragwort
69Senecio triangularisarrowhead butterweed
70Solidago californicagoldenrod
71Stephanomeria cichoriaceachicory-leaved stephanomeria
72Stephanomeria exiguaslender wreathplant
73Stephanomeria spinosathorny skeleton-plant
74Stephanomeria virgata+twiggy wreath plant
75Syntrichopappus lemmoniiLemmon's syntrichopappus
76Taraxacum californicumCalifornia dandelion
77Tetradymia canescensspineless horsebrush
78Tragopogon porrifolius*salsify
79Wyethia ovatasouthern mule's ears
BetulaceaeBirch Family
80Alnus rhombifoliawhite alder
BoraginaceaeBorage Family
81Cryptantha (circumscissa, echinella, simulans)cushion cryptantha
BrassicaceaeMustard Family
82Arabis (holboellii var. retrofracta?)+pinewoods rock-cress
83Arabis perennansperennial rock-cress
84Arabis platysperma+broad-seeded rock-cress
85Arabis repanda var. repandaYosemite rockcress
86Barbarea orthoceraswinter cress
87Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. amplexicaulisclasping-leaved caulanthus
88Caulanthus majorslender wild cabbage
89Descurainia sp.western tansy-mustard
90Draba corrugata var. corrugataSouthern California draba
91Erysimum capitatum ssp. capitatumwestern wallflower
92Hirschfeldia incana*shortpod mustard
93Lepidium sp.+pepper-grass
94Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticumwater cress
95Stanleya pinnataprince's plume
96Streptanthus bernardinus+Laguna Mtns. jewel-flower
CactaceaeCactus Family
97Opuntia basilaris var. brachycladashort-joint beavertail
CaprifoliaceaeHoneysuckle Family
98Lonicera interruptachaparral honeysuckle
99Sambucus mexicanablue elderberry
100Symphoricarpos rotundifolius var. parishiiParish's snowberry
CaryophyllaceaePink Family
101Arenaria macradenia var. macradeniadesert sandwort
102Minuartia nuttallii ssp. gracilisNuttall's sandwort
103Silene parishiiParish's campion
104Silene verecunda ssp. platyotawhite catch-fly
ChenopodiaceaeGoosefoot Family
105Chenopodium fremontiiFremont's goosefoot
106Salsola tragus*Russian thistle
ConvolvulaceaeMorning Glory Family
107Calystegia occidentalis ssp. fulcratawestern morning-glory
108Calystegia peirsoniiPeirson's morning-glory
CornaceaeDogwood Family
109Cornus sericeaAmerican dogwood
CrassulaceaeStonecrop Family
110Dudleya (abramsii)Abrams' dudleya
CuscutaceaeDodder Family
111Cuscuta sp.dodder
DatiscaceaeDatisca Family
112Datisca glomerataDurango root
EricaceaeHeath Family
113Arctostaphylos glaucabigberry manzanita
114Arctostaphylos patulagreen-leaf manzanita
115Pterospora andromedeapinedrops
116Pyrola pictawhite-veined wintergreen
117Sarcodes sanguineasnow-plant
EuphorbiaceaeSpurge Family
118Euphorbia palmeriwoodland spurge
FabaceaePea Family
119Astragalus bicristatuscrested milk-vetch
120Astragalus douglasiiJacumba milk-vetch
121Astragalus lentiginosus var. antoniusSan Antonio milk-vetch
122Astragalus leucolobusBig Bear Valley woollypod
123Lotus (argyraeus)canyon birdsfoot lotus
124Lotus corniculatus*bird's-foot lotus
125Lotus crassifolius var. crassifoliusbroad-leaved lotus
126Lotus nevadensis var. davidsoniiDavidson's lotus
127Lotus oblongifoliusstreambank lotus
128Lupinus (arbustus)spur lupine
129Lupinus breweriBrewer's lupine
130Lupinus concinnusbajada lupine
131Lupinus elatussilky lupine
132Lupinus excubitusgrape-soda lupine
133Lupinus formosuswestern lupine
134Lupinus latifoliusbroad-leaf lupine
135Lupinus peirsoniiPeirson's lupine
136Lupinus sp.+lupine
137Medicago sativa*alfalfa
138Melilotus (indicus)+*sourclover
139Spartium junceum*Spanish broom
140Trifolium monanthum var. grantianumfew-flowered clover
141Melilotus albus*white sweetclover
FagaceaeOak Family
142Chrysolepis sempervirensbush chinquapin
143Quercus chrysolepiscanyon live oak
144Quercus kelloggiiCalifornia black oak
145Quercus wislizeni var. frutescensinterior live oak
GarryaceaeSilk-Tassel Family
146Garrya flavescensashy silk tassel
GentianaceaeGentian Family
147Swertia neglectapine green-gentian
GeraniaceaeGeranium Family
148Erodium cicutarium*redstem filaree
149Geranium californicumCalifornia geranium
GrossulariaceaeGooseberry Family
150Ribes cereum var. cereumwax currant
151Ribes lasianthumalpine gooseberry
152Ribes montigenum+mountain gooseberry
153Ribes nevadensemountain pink currant
154Ribes roezlii var. roezliiSierra gooseberry
HydrophyllaceaePhacelia Family
155Emmenanthe penduliflora var. penduliflorawhispering bells
156Eriodictyon trichocalyx var. trichocalyxsmoothleaf yerba santa
157Phacelia austromontanasouthern Sierra phacelia
158Phacelia curvipescurve-stem phacelia
159Phacelia davidsoniiDavidson's phacelia
160Phacelia exilisTransverse Range phacelia
161Phacelia fremontiiFremont's phacelia
162Phacelia imbricata ssp. patulaimbricate phacelia
163Phacelia longipeslong-stalk phacelia
164Phacelia mohavensisMojave phacelia
165Phacelia ramosissima var. latifoliabranching phacelia
166Turricula parryipoodle-dog bush
LamiaceaeMint Family
167Monardella cinereagray monardella
168Monardella linoides ssp. strictanarrowleaf monardella
169Salvia columbariaechia
170Scutellaria siphocampyloidescurve-flowered skullcap
171Stachys albenscobwebby hedge-nettle
172Trichostema austromontanumsouthern bluecurls
LoasaceaeStick-Leaf Family
173Mentzelia (congesta)clustered blazing star
174Mentzelia laevicaulisgiant blazing star
MalvaceaeMallow Family
175Malacothamnus marrubioidespink-flowered bush mallow
OnagraceaeEvening Primrose Family
176Camissonia sp.bottlebrush
177Clarkia rhomboideadiamond-petaled clarkia
178Epilobium canum ssp. latifoliummountain California-fuchsia
179Epilobium (oreganum)Oregon fireweed
180Epilobium sp.willowherb
181Gayophytum sp.groundsmoke
182Oenothera californicaCalifornia evening-primrose
183Oenothera sp.yellow evening-primrose
OrobanchaceaeBroom-Rape Family
184Orobanche californica ssp. feudgeiCalifornia broomrape
185Orobanche (corymbosa?)+Mt. Baldy broom-rape
186Orobanche fasciculataclustered broom-rape
187Orobanche validaRock Creek broom-rape
PapaveraceaePoppy Family
188Argemone munitaprickly poppy
189Dicentra chrysanthagolden ear drops
PlatanaceaeSycamore Family
190Platanus racemosawestern sycamore
PolemoniaceaePhlox Family
191Allophyllum integrifoliumwhite false-gilia
192Collomia grandifloralarge-flowered collomia
193Eriastrum densifolium ssp. austromontanumsouthern mountain woolly-star
194Eriastrum sapphirinumsapphire woolly-star
195Gilia capitataglobe gilia
196Gilia ochroleuca ssp. vividavolcanic gilia
197Gilia splendens ssp. splendenssplendid gilia
198Leptodactylon californicumprickly phlox
199Leptodactylon pungensgranite prickly phlox
200Linanthus breviculusMojave linanthus
201Linanthus concinnusSan Gabriel linanthus
202Linanthus (dianthiflorus)+ground pink
203Phlox diffusaspreading phlox
PolygonaceaeBuckwheat Family
204Eriogonum davidsoniiDavidson's buckwheat
205Eriogonum fasciculatumCalifornia buckwheat
206Eriogonum kennedyi var. alpigenumsouthern alpine buckwheat
207Eriogonum microthecum var. corymbosoidesSan Bernardino buckwheat
208Eriogonum microthecum var. johnstoniiJohnston's buckwheat
209Eriogonum nudumnaked buckwheat
210Eriogonum parishiiParish's buckwheat
211Eriogonum saxatilerock buckwheat
212Eriogonum umbellatum var. minusalpine sulfur-flowered buckwheat
213Eriogonum umbellatum var. munziisulphur buckwheat
214Eriogonum wrightii var. subscaposumWright's buckwheat
215Oxytheca parishii var. parishiiParish's oxytheca
216Rumex salicifolius var. salicifoliuswillow-leaved dock
217Oxytheca caryophylloides+chickweed oxytheca
PortulacaceaePurslane Family
218Calyptridium monandrumsand cress
219Calyptridium monospermumpussy paws
220Claytonia lanceolata var. peirsoniiPeirson's spring beauty
221Claytonia parviflora ssp. parvifloranarrow-leaved miner's lettuce
222Claytonia perfoliata ssp. mexicanasouthern miner's lettuce
223Claytonia perfoliata ssp. perfoliataminer's lettuce
224Lewisia redivivabitter root
PrimulaceaePrimrose Family
225Dodecatheon redolensscented shooting star
RanunculaceaeButtercup Family
226Aquilegia shockleyidesert columbine
227Clematis (ligusticifolia)virgin's bower
228Delphinium cardinalescarlet larkspur
229Delphinium parishiiParish's larkspur
230Thalictrum fendleriFendler's meadow-rue
RhamnaceaeBuckthorn Family
231Ceanothus cordulatusmountain whitethorn
232Ceanothus greggii var. perplexanscupped-leaf ceanothus
233Ceanothus integerrimusdeer brush
234Ceanothus leucodermischaparral whitethorn
235Rhamnus californica ssp. californicaCalifornia coffeeberry
236Rhamnus ilicifoliahollyleaf redberry
RosaceaeRose Family
237Amelanchier utahensisUtah service-berry
238Cercocarpus betuloides var. betuloidesbirch-leaf mountain-mahogany
239Cercocarpus ledifolius var. intermontanuscurl-leaf mountain-mahogany
240Holodiscus microphyllus var. microphyllusmountain spray
241Horkelia rydbergiiRydberg's horkelia
242Ivesia santolinoidesSierra mousetail
243Potentilla glandulosa ssp. ewaniiEwan's cinquefoil
244Potentilla glandulosa ssp. reflexasticky cinquefoil
245Potentilla gracilis var. fastigiataslender cinquefoil
246Prunus emarginatabitter cherry
247Prunus fasciculatadesert almond
248Prunus ilicifolia ssp. ilicifoliahollyleaf cherry
249Prunus virginiana var. demissawestern choke-cherry
250Purshia tridentata var. glandulosadesert bitterbrush
251Rosa woodsii var. ultramontanainterior rose
252Rubus leucodermis var. bernardinuswhite-bark raspberry
253Rubus parviflorusthimbleberry
RubiaceaeBedstraw Family
254Galium (angustifolium ssp. gabrielense)San Antonio Canyon bedstraw
255Galium bifoliumlow mountain bedstraw
256Galium hallii+nodding bedstraw
257Galium (jepsonii)Jepson's bedstraw
258Galium (johnstonii)Johnston's bedstraw
259Galium parishiiParish's bedstraw
SalicaceaeWillow Family
260Populus fremontii ssp. fremontiiFremont cottonwood
261Salix lasiolepisarroyo willow
SaxifragaceaeSaxifrage Family
262Boykinia rotundifoliaround-leaved boykinia
263Heuchera abramsiiAbrams's alumroot
264Heuchera elegansurn-flowered alumroot
265Lithophragma (parviflorum)pink woodland star
ScrophulariaceaeSnapdragon Family
266Castilleja applegatei ssp. martiniiMartin's paintbrush
267Castilleja gleasonii+Mt. Gleason Indian paintbrush
268Castilleja minor ssp. spiralislesser paintbrush
269Castilleja plagiotomaMojave Indian paintbrush
270Collinsia torreyi var. wrightiiWright's collinsia
271Cordylanthus neviniiNevin's bird's beak
272Keckiella ternatawhorledleaf penstemon
273Mimulus aurantiacusbush monkeyflower
274Mimulus bigeloviiBigelow's monkeyflower
275Mimulus brevipeswide-throated yellow monkeyflower
276Mimulus cardinalisscarlet monkeyflower
277Mimulus fremontiiFremont's monkeyflower
278Mimulus guttatuscommon monkeyflower
279Mimulus johnstoniiJohnston's monkeyflower
280Mimulus moschatusmusk monkeyflower
281Mimulus palmeriPalomar monkeyflower
282Mimulus (pilosus)false monkeyflower
283Mimulus rubelluslittle redstem monkeyflower
284Pedicularis semibarbatapine lousewort
285Penstemon caesiusSan Bernardino beardtongue
286Penstemon centranthifoliusscarlet bugler
287Penstemon grinnellii var. grinnelliiGrinnell's beardtongue
288Penstemon rostriflorusbeaked penstemon
289Penstemon speciosusshowy penstemon
290Verbascum thapsus*common mullein
SolanaceaeNightshade Family
291Nicotiana glauca*tree tobacco
292Solanum xantipurple nightshade
SterculiaceaeCacao Family
293Fremontodendron californicum ssp. californicumflannelbush
UrticaceaeNettle Family
294Urtica dioica ssp. holosericeastinging nettle
VerbenaceaeVervain Family
295Verbena lasiostachys var. lasiostachyswestern vervain
ViolaceaeViolet Family
296Viola douglasiiDouglas' violet
297Viola pinetorum ssp. pinetorumpine violet
298Viola purpurea ssp. quercetorumgoosefoot yellow violet
ViscaceaeMistletoe Family
299Arceuthobium campylopodumpine dwarf-mistletoe
300Phoradendron villosumoak mistletoe


CyperaceaeSedge Family
301Carex sp.Sedge
IridaceaeIris Family
302Sisyrinchium idahoenseIdaho blue-eyed grass
JuncaceaeRush Family
303Juncus sp.rush
LiliaceaeLily Family
304Allium (burlewii)Burlew's onion
305Allium (monticola)San Bernardino Mountain onion
306Allium sp.+onion
307Allium sp.+onion
308Bloomeria croceagoldenstar
309Calochortus invenustusplain mariposa lily
310Calochortus kennedyidesert mariposa
311Calochortus splendenssplendid mariposa lily
312Dichelostemma capitatum ssp. capitatumblue dicks
313Fritillaria pinetorumpine-woods fritillary
314Lilium parryilemon lily
315Muilla maritimamuilla
316Smilacina stellatalittle false-solomon's-seal
317Veratrum californicum var. californicumCalifornia corn lily
318Yucca brevifoliajoshua tree
319Yucca whippleichaparral yucca
OrchidaceaeOrchid Family
320Corallorhiza maculataspotted coralroot
321Epipactis giganteastream orchid
322Platanthera leucostachyswhite bog orchid
323Platanthera sparsiflorasparse-flowered bog-orchid
PoaceaeGrass Family
324Achnatherum parishiiParish's needlegrass
325Achnatherum speciosumdesert needlegrass
326Agropyron sp.+wheatgrass
327Bromus carinatus var. carinatusCalifornia brome
328Bromus ciliatusfringed brome
329Bromus tectorum*cheatgrass
330Elymus elymoidessquirreltail
331Melica imperfectasmall-flowered melica
332Melica strictarock melica
333Muhlenbergia californica+California muhly
334Poa sp.bluegrass
TyphaceaeCat Tail Family
335Typha latifoliabroadleaf cattail

Comments On Specific Species

Perideridia (parishii). Found at Little Jimmy Springs.

Brickellia (microphylla?). Found on the Rattlesnake Trail 9/10/99.

Gnaphalium (stramineum; possibly canescens ssp. thermale). Found in the Burkhart streambed 9/11/99.

Hulsea vestita. In our experience, H. vestita is found in two main locations in the SGM, near Mt. Williamson and from near Three Points to Mt. Gleason. The classification of the subspecies seems to be problematic. The JM lumps all the SGM plants into ssp. gabrielensis, which is why we have listed that as a definite subspeces in our flora.

We feel there is another subspecies present in the SGM, but it seems difficult to pin down a subspecies name for it, or even to decide which of the two subspecies is gabrielensis and which is another subspecies.

The plants near Three Points to Mt. Gleason are 8-14 inches tall, glandular and have yellow disk and ray flowers. They have been classified as ssp. vestita prior to the recognition of ssp. gabrielensis.

The plants near Mt. Williamson are shorter, strongly pubescent, with reddish ligules. They have been variously classified as ssp. callicarpha, ssp. vestita, and ssp. parryi, prior to the recognition of ssp. gabrielensis.

Hence we have decided simply to list the existence of another subspeces, without giving it a name.

Stephanomeria virgata. We found a single plant on the Burkhart Trail on 9/11/99.

Arabis (holboellii var. retrofracta?). Found at Burkhart Saddle 6/21/95.

Arabis platysperma. We found a plant in fruit that might be this species at Pleasant View Ridge on 9/10/99. We've listed this as a definite identification since it is listed in the pine belt of the San Gabriels in Munz.

Lepidium sp. Found at Chilao 5/30/99.

Streptanthus bernardinus. We found a plant that might be this species when we began our flora, but haven't seen it since. We've listed this as a definite identification since it is listed in the pine belt of the San Gabriels in Munz.

Lupinus sp. This is a tiny lupine found at Chilao.

Melilotus (indicus). Found in a wash at Wrightwood.

Ribes montigenum. This taxon is reported to occur at Pine Mountain by Nigel Hancock, but we haven't yet found it there.

Orobanche (corymbosa?). This is possibly an undescribed species, blooming in late September / early October on yerba santa.

Linanthus (dianthiflorus). Found at Chilao.

Oxytheca caryophylloides. This taxon is reported by rare plant surveys in the Pine Belt of the San Gabriel Mountains, and is also in Munz, but we haven't yet found it.

Galium hallii. Found by Tim Ross.

Castilleja gleasonii. This is a judgment-reserved taxon in the Jepson Manual, under Castilleja pruinosa.

Allium sp. One of these species was found at Chilao; the other had a purple flower and was found at Big Pine Meadow.

Agropyron sp. Found at Table Mountain. This was identified as an Agropyron sp. in Munz, but the Jepsonized name for this taxon is uncertain since Agropyron has been split into three genera in the Jepson Manual - Agropyron, Elymus and Elytrigia.

Muhlenbergia californica Found on the PCT north of Eagle's Nest.

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Copyright © 2004 by RT and Shaun Hawke.
Permission is freely granted to reproduce any or all of this page as long as credit is given to us at this source:
Comments and feedback: Tom Chester, who will relay comments to RT and Shaun Hawke
Updated 18 November 2004.