Flora of north side of Mt. Waterman above SR2, San Gabriel Mountains

     Composition of Checklist
     Note on Phacelia imbricata
     Diversity of Species here
     Lupinus breweri
The Flora

Fig. 1. The north side of Mt. Waterman about SR2, seen in a Google Earth view to a bit west of directly south, showing the route surveyed on 24 June 2015. Note that the route, known as the Mt. Waterman Loop, is almost entirely along ridgelines, crossing the main drainage at only a single point. The Angeles Crest Highway, SR2, is the yellow line going mostly east-west 1/3 of the way up from the bottom. Twin Peaks are seen just above our route to the left of middle. GPS locations of Lupinus breweri, a species known only from this area in the San Gabriel Mountains, are marked with numbered flags. The bare scraped areas are the ski slopes.
Click on the picture for a larger version.


For photographs of many of the plants observed on the 24 June 2015 field survey, see the Photo Gallery by Michael Charters.

Composition of Checklist

This checklist contains species found in a search of vouchers from the Consortium of California Herbaria on 22 June 2015, and from the following surveys of this area:

The voucher search was done by searching for vouchers with Waterman in the locality name. Those vouchers were then manually reviewed to exclude ones not taken on the north side of Mt. Waterman. Vouchers from areas below the Angeles Crest Highway (SR2), such as the Burkhart Trail, were also excluded.

Five taxa in the remaining vouchers were excluded as being misdeterminations or not actually taken from this area: Calochortus kennedyi, Ericameria parryi, Eriogonum umbellatum var. canifolium, Heuchera abramsii, and Triteleia dudleyi.

Note on Phacelia imbricata

One vouchered taxon, Phacelia imbricata ssp. patula, was changed to just the species after we found that the plants here are actually intermediates between ssp. patula and ssp. imbricata. One plant we examined had the narrow calyx lobes of ssp. patula, but the leaf segments greater than 7 and glandular calyx lobes of ssp. imbricata.

Heckard, in his beautiful and thorough 1960 Monograph on Taxonomic Studies in the Phacelia Magellanica Polyploid Complex (UC Pub. Bot. 32:1-126), noted three groups of intergrades involving ssp. patula. He recognized that most of the plants in the San Gabriel Mountains between 3000 and 7000 feet were intergrades that he placed in what he called Group I (of three such groups in southern California), and wrote:

in all three groups the narrow calyx lobe is present and is important owing to the association of this character as a regular feature (and key character) of ssp. patula. The plants of group I are largely like those of ssp. imbricata in other characteristics. p. 43.

We feel it is misleading to call these plants ssp. patula when they are actually intermediates between the two subspecies, and hence we just call these plants the species name, without any subspecies.

Diversity of Species here

It was apparent to us during our 24 June 2015 survey that a number of species that are found in the surrounding area do not seem to be present here. In addition, a number of species were found only at a single location, and so just barely got into the flora. For example, we found only a single Cryptantha species, and that was only at one spot!

This lack of species diversity appears to be due to a variety of reasons. Among them are:

Lupinus breweri

Interestingly, this is the only location of Lupinus breweri in the San Gabriel Mountains, a matted species confined to the open gravelly areas ("balds") in the ridgelines near the top, accompanied by mats of Eriogonum wrightii var. subscaposum. Furthermore, as far as we know, all locations of this species are within a maximum extent of just one mile, with our recorded locations a maximum of 0.9 miles apart (see locations plotted in Fig. 1).

We do not know for sure, but it is possible that this species has the smallest extent of any higher-elevation species in the San Gabriel Mountains. We know of one other native species at lower elevation, Monardella breweri var. glandulifera, has a similar small range, confined to Browns Flat above Glendora. Lupinus stiversii has a smaller extent, found only in the immediate vicinity of Mt. Lowe Campground, but it almost surely is not native to the San Gabriel Mountains.

It is less than clear why this would be the only location of L. breweri in the San Gabriel Mountains, since there are similar bald areas in many other places in the San Gabriels with tons of Eriogonum wrightii var. subscaposum. Perhaps the presence of L. breweri here has something to do with the very unusual large flattish area at the top of Mt. Waterman.

We examined closely some plants of L. breweri and they are clearly var. grandiflorus, since the keel is ciliate and the banner back is quite hairy, both of which can only fit grandiflorus. Two other characteristics also fit only var. grandiflorus: the inflorescence length is 2-3 cm and the peduncle is 2.5-4 cm.

The single voucher from here determined as var. breweri has a dupe determined as var. grandiflorus. We left that voucher of var. breweri in the list below, but we strongly suspect var. breweri does not exist here. In addition to our measurements and the other vouchers which support the variety being grandiflorus here, Jane Strong found that some vouchers of var. breweri in the San Bernardino Mountains are recorded as growing in the quite-different habitat of open meadow near Big Bear Lake.

The Flora

For photographs of many of the plants observed on the 24 June 2015 field survey, see the Photo Gallery by Michael Charters.

See Information about the order in which the species are presented, and the links from the Scientific Name and Common Name.

The column #V gives the number of vouchers for this area.

The column #Pls gives the minimum number of plants, up to a maximum of 99, from the 24 June 2015 survey. Species found only in 2008 by Michael Charters have MC in this column. If there is uncertainty in the determination, the number has a symbol associated with it, ~ for a probable determination, ? for a more uncertain determination.

Version for printing, without lines and other text on this page: html (4 pages) or pdf Clickbook booklet (1 double-sided page). (See printing instructions for an explanation of these options)

#FamScientific Name(*)Common Name#V#Pls
1SelSelaginella asprellabluish spike-moss 1
2DenPteridium aquilinum var. pubescensbracken 99
3CupCalocedrus decurrensincense-cedar199
4PinAbies concolorwhite fir199
5PinPinus jeffreyiJeffrey pine 99
6PinPinus lambertianasugar pine150
7AdoSambucus nigra ssp. caeruleablue elderberry21
8ApiLomatium nevadense var. parishiiParish's lomatium1 
9ApiOreonana vestitawoolly mountain-parsley15
10ApoAsclepias eriocarpaIndian milkweed499
11AstAchillea millefoliumyarrow2 
12AstArtemisia dracunculuswild tarragon 50
13AstChaenactis santolinoidessantolina pincushion110
14AstDieteria canescens var. canescenshoary-aster1 
15AstEricameria cuneata var. cuneatarock goldenbush75
16AstEricameria nauseosa var. bernardinaSan Bernardino rubber rabbitbrush299
17AstEricameria nauseosa var. oreophilathreadleaf common rabbitbrush 40
18AstErigeron foliosus var. foliosusleafy daisy520
19AstEriophyllum confertiflorum var. confertiflorumgolden yarrow299
20AstGnaphalium palustrewestern marsh cudweed6 
21AstHulsea vestita ssp. gabrielensisSan Gabriel Mtns. sunflower1 
22AstPackera ionophyllaTehachapi ragwort 8
23AstPseudognaphalium thermaleslender everlasting 2
24AstSolidago velutina ssp. californicagoldenrod 99
25AstStephanomeria virgata ssp. virgatatwiggy wreath plant2 
26BetAlnus rhombifoliawhite alder 5
27BorCryptantha muricata var. denticulataprickly-nut cryptantha1 
28BorCryptantha muricata var. jonesiiJones' prickly-nut cryptantha ~40
29BorPhacelia davidsoniiDavidson's phacelia1 
30BorPhacelia imbricataimbricate phacelia510
31BorPhacelia mohavensisMojave phacelia499
32BraBoechera repandaYosemite rockcress45
33BraErysimum capitatum var. capitatumwestern wallflower299
34CapSymphoricarpos rotundifolius var. parishiiParish's snowberry2 
35CarSilene parishiiParish's campion330
36CarSilene verecundawhite catch-fly210
37EriArctostaphylos patulagreen-leaf manzanita 99
38EriPterospora andromedeapinedrops 5
39EriPyrola dentatawhite-veined wintergreen 4
40EriSarcodes sanguineasnow-plant22
41FabAcmispon americanus var. americanusSpanish clover 40
42FabAcmispon nevadensis var. davidsoniiDavidson's lotus299
43FabHosackia oblongifolia var. oblongifoliastreambank lotus1 
44FabLupinus breweri var. breweriBrewer's lupine1 
45FabLupinus breweri var. grandiflorusshowy Brewer's lupine399
46FabLupinus elatussilky lupine699
47FabLupinus excubitus var. austromontanusmountain grape-soda lupine 99
48FabLupinus excubitus var. johnstoniiinterior bush lupine2 
49FabLupinus formosus var. formosuswestern lupine199
50FabLupinus latifolius var. parishiiParish's lupine 1
51FabTrifolium monanthum ssp. grantianummountain carpet clover 1
52FabTrifolium variegatumvariegated clover2 
53FagChrysolepis sempervirensbush chinquapin230
54FagQuercus chrysolepiscanyon live oak 10
55GroRibes nevadensemountain pink currant199
56LamMonardella australis ssp. australissouthern mountain-monardella1 
57LamTrichostema austromontanum ssp. austromontanumsouthern bluecurls815
58LoaMentzelia dispersascattered blazing star1 
59LoaMentzelia montanamountain blazing star1 
60MonCalyptridium monospermumpussy paws150
61MonLewisia rediviva var. minorbitter root1 
62OnaEpilobium canum ssp. latifoliummountain California-fuchsia499
63OnaGayophytum diffusum ssp. parviflorumgroundsmoke1 
64OnaGayophytum oligospermumpinegrove groundsmoke 99
65OroCordylanthus neviniiNevin's bird's beak599
66OroPedicularis semibarbatapine lousewort299
67PhrMimulus breweriBrewer's monkeyflower1 
68PhrMimulus johnstoniiJohnston's monkeyflower1 
69PhrMimulus moschatusmusk monkeyflower MC
70PhrMimulus pilosusfalse monkeyflower45
71PlaPenstemon grinnellii var. grinnelliiGrinnell's beardtongue 50
72PlaPenstemon labrosusSan Gabriel beardtongue 30
73PlaPenstemon rostriflorusbeaked penstemon450
74PolGilia ochroleuca ssp. vividavolcanic gilia499
75PolLeptosiphon breviculusMojave linanthus1 
76PolLinanthus concinnusSan Gabriel linanthus1 
77PolLinanthus pungensgranite prickly phlox440
78PolSaltugilia splendens ssp. grantiiGrant's gilia1 
79PolAcanthoscyphus parishii var. parishiiParish's oxytheca 40
80PolEriogonum davidsoniiDavidson's buckwheat1 
81PolEriogonum nudum var. pauciflorumnaked buckwheat 99
82PolEriogonum parishiiParish's buckwheat4 
83PolEriogonum saxatilerock buckwheat499
84PolEriogonum umbellatum var. minusalpine sulfur-flowered buckwheat1 
85PolEriogonum umbellatum var. munziisulphur buckwheat199
86PolEriogonum wrightii var. subscaposumWright's buckwheat499
87PolRumex acetosella*common sheep sorrel2 
88PolSidotheca caryophylloideschickweed oxytheca840
89RanAquilegia formosawestern columbine MC
90RhaCeanothus cordulatusmountain whitethorn330
91RhaFrangula californicaCalifornia coffeeberry 3
92RosDrymocallis glandulosasticky cinquefoil2 
93RosDrymocallis glandulosa var. viscidasticky cinquefoil 50
94RosHolodiscus discolor var. microphyllusmountain spray21
95RosIvesia santolinoidesSierra mousetail1 
96RubGalium angustifolium ssp. nudicaulenaked-stem bedstraw2MC
97RubGalium jepsoniiJepson's bedstraw599
98RubGalium johnstoniiJohnston's bedstraw1 
99RubGalium parishiiParish's bedstraw1 
100SalSalix lasiolepisarroyo willow 20
101SaxHeuchera elegansurn-flowered alumroot15
102SaxLithophragma tenellumslender woodland star4 
103VisArceuthobium campylopodumwestern dwarf-mistletoe 60
104VisPhoradendron bolleanumfir mistletoe 99
105AllAllium burlewiiBurlew's onion2MC
106AllAllium monticolaSan Bernardino Mountain onion11?
107CypCarex abruptaabrupt-beak sedge 2?
108CypCarex almasturdy sedge1 
109CypCarex athrostachyaslender-beak sedge3 
110CypCarex fractafragile sheath sedge25
111CypCarex subfuscabrown sedge21
112JunJuncus bufonius var. bufoniustoad rush2 
113JunJuncus covilleiCoville's rush 15
114JunJuncus duraniiDuran's rush3 
115JunJuncus ensifoliusthree-stamened rush1 
116LilCalochortus invenustusplain mariposa lily 1
117PoaAgrostis idahoensisIdaho bentgrass2 
118PoaBromus carinatus var. carinatusCalifornia brome 2
119PoaBromus tectorum*downy brome 99
120PoaDeschampsia danthonioidesannual hairgrass5 
121PoaDeschampsia elongataslender hairgrass4 
122PoaElymus elymoidessquirreltail199
123PoaElymus hispidus*intermediate wheatgrass6 
124PoaFestuca arundinacea*tall fescue1 
125PoaFestuca rubrared fescue 2
126PoaMuhlenbergia richardsonismat muhly240
127PoaStipa occidentalis var. occidentaliswestern needlegrass330
128TheTriteleia lugensCoast Range triplet-lily21

Voucher data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria (ucjeps.berkeley.edu/consortium/) on 22 June 2015.

We thank Jane Strong for comments about the number of missing species that inspired our comments in the Introduction, and for finding that Lupinus breweri var. breweri seems to grow in a different habitat than var. grandiflorus.

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Copyright © 2015 by Tom Chester and Michael Charters
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Last update: 17 July 2015