Flora of Mountain Springs Grade area, Imperial / San Diego County
Fig. 1. Google Earth View of the upper part of the Mountain Springs Grade area. The bottom of the Grade is on the desert floor near Ocotillo, CA. Click on the picture for a larger version showing more area.
Mountain Springs Grade is a visually-stunning area where the mountains in the southeast corner of San Diego County abruptly descend to the desert floor in Imperial County. The descent is so steep that the two traffic directions of Interstate 8 are routed down two separate canyons as the freeway descends 4000 feet in 11 miles. Probably because of the steep slopes, with low rainfall that often comes in large quantities from thunderstorms, the area features what has been called a magnificent arrangement of huge boulders. The boulders appear quite naked, with little plant life evident. See photographs at the following links: US 80 Photo Gallery; Mountain Springs History; and Off-Road Trip to Mountain Spring.
But plant life there is, and it is fascinating!
There are a number of plant species found here that are not found in the rest of Anza Borrego Desert State Park, or San Diego County, some of which are the northernmost locations of species found in Baja California such as Deinandra floribunda, Hulsea mexicana, Ipomopsis tenuifolia and Linanthus bellus.
There are also a number of interesting plant species that are supposedly vouchered from here, but which apparently are actually not found here, since no one else has ever seen them here, and they appear to be very out of range from the rest of their distribution. Examples are Cryptantha similis, Cynoglossum grande, Lepidium fremontii, Salvia dorrii var. pilosa, Scutellaria mexicana, Syntrichopappus fremontii, and Xylorhiza tortifolia. At least one other interesting species is mentioned as being in this area in Beauchamp's 1986 Flora of San Diego County, such as Herissantia crispa, but there are no vouchers of this species from here.
I had always wanted to work in the field on a flora of this area to try to figure out what species are actually here, and what species are not. However, as I was compiling vouchers for this area, it soon became apparent that nearly all of the curious plant species are from a single collector, Charles Russell Orcutt, from what appears to be a single collection event in April 1917. See below for more information about the Orcutt vouchers.
Field observations have been made by three groups of people:
- Jon Rebman led a CNPS field trip to Mountain Springs some years ago, and posted a checklist from that trip with 58 species.
- Mike Crouse made a one hour stop at the exit of I-8 on 13 February 2013, and compiled a list of 56 species which he kindly sent me.
- On 11/17/14, a bad time of year in a very dry year, Tom Chester, Keir Morse, Mike Crouse, Adrienne Ballwey, Jim Roberts, Jeff Field, and Bill Sullivan surveyed a 3.5 mile loop south of the section of Old Highway 80 at the Mountain Spring exit of I-8. This survey found 82 species that could be confidently identified, and another 8 species with identifications that could only be surmised based on the voucher list. Their observed minimum # of plants is now given in the checklist, with the uncertain identifications marked.
- On 3/20/15, when the area was in peak bloom, Tom Chester, Mike Crouse, and Karyn Sauber surveyed 2.4 miles circling peak 2513 that is 1.7 mile east of the Mountain Springs exit of I-8, and 1.3 miles west of Myer Valley. The route went through two culverts of the freeway for Myer Creek, up Boulder Creek to a minor drainage from the east, and then northwest along a flattish sandy valley that is just west of Myer Valley.
- Karyn Sauber made three separate additional trips on 3/13, 3/17 and 3/22/15.
The surveys in March 2015 found a total of 156 taxa.
Vouchers were searched on 13 and 14 November 2014 at Consortium of California Herbaria. A geographic coordinate search, for vouchers with coordinates, was made for the region of 32.65 to 32.70° north latitude and -116.13 to -116.06° east longitude. The search was augmented by a separate locality search for "Mountain Spring" for vouchers without coordinates from San Diego or Imperial County. I later found 12 additional vouchers from this area that had coordinates but had been georeferenced just outside this area.
The localities of all vouchers were reviewed, and ones with localities that were clearly outside this area were tossed.
After compiling the list of species from vouchers, I sorted that list by the number of observations in my database, and began to examine the species that I had either never seen, or had just a few records of in my database. For each of those species, I checked the geographic distribution given in the Jepson Manual second edition, and that given by maps of voucher locations. When I found species that seemed unlikely to actually be here, I checked the voucher record that placed them here.
In this analysis, it soon became apparent that nearly all of the curious plant species are from a single collector, Charles Russell Orcutt, from what appears to be a single collection event in April 1917. I then examined the total geographic range in vouchers for every species from his set of ~62 vouchers, and quickly realized that most of the Orcutt vouchers were not actually from the Mountain Springs area.
The problem is that in April 1917 Orcutt clearly collected vouchers from a very large area, probably from the Mojave Desert to Mountain Springs Grade to the coast of San Diego County, and called the entire collection his Mountain Springs Collection. Most of those vouchers have no further locality information, perhaps because Orcutt was primarily interested in collecting living and fossil animal shells at that time, and/or perhaps because Orcutt was said to be a librarian's nightmare, somewhat careless in his work, and careless in his collecting methods.
It flouts common sense that vouchers from the Mountain Springs Collection would not actually be from the Mountain Springs area, but that appears to be the case.
For example, the voucher label for this specimen has the typed information of Mountain Springs Grade; Orcutt Collection, but a hand-written locality of near Sweetwater River, Jacumba. The Sweetwater River is 33 miles west of Mountain Spring, and Jacumba is six miles southwest of Mountain Spring as well as six miles west of the head of Mountain Spring Grade as measured along the current route of I-8.
And this is one of his better localities! Off all 721 vouchers collected by Orcutt that are in the Consortium of California Herbaria, 65% do not even have a collection number assigned; 20% have a locality of just San Diego; 15% have a locality of just Colorado Desert or sw Colorado Desert; 10% do not even have a COUNTY assigned; and 10% have no locality information at all.
His specimen numbering appears to have started anew with his April 1917 Mountain Springs Grade collection trip, with those online vouchers numbered from 155 to 307, after his collection number had reached 2555 in 1890. There are few online collections from him between 1890 and 1917.
Of the vouchers collected in 1917 in the Mountain Springs Grade collection, at least 15 of the species are coastal or montane San Diego County species whose eastern limit is reached at a significant distance to the west of the actual location of Mountain Springs Grade. Two of those species, Pseudognaphalium ramosissimum and Ceanothus verrucosus, are found only very near the coast of San Diego County, 40 to 50 miles west of Mountain Springs Grade. An additional 11 of the species from this set have Mountain Spring significantly out of their actual range. One of those species, Cryptantha similis, is endemic to an area on the north side of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains. Another species, Cynoglossum grande, is not even found in southern California. His voucher has a note in it Found in this group possibly out of range, indicating that he possibly had accidentally included a voucher from another trip with this collection.
Since the Orcutt locality of Mountain Springs Grade is clearly meaningless, I went through all of his vouchers and tossed 37 species that had no other indication that they could actually be found here. I kept 48 species that had other vouchers within about ten miles, since they possibly might be found here. Of those 48 species, 25 have other vouchers from this area and thus probably are actually found here. The other 23 species are the only ones possibly documenting those species here. Since there is obviously a big uncertainty as to whether those 23 species are actually found here, I put a ? in the voucher column below for those species. I'll eventually toss all such vouchers if they aren't confirmed by future field work or vouchers. Since many other people have collected from this area on many other occasions, it is possible that none of these 23 questionable species are actually found here.
In summary, of 85 species in Orcutt's Mountain Springs Grade collection, 37 of them (44%) almost surely were not actually collected here, 25 of them (29%) might have been collected here, and 23 of them (27%) likely have a low probability that they were collected here.
The above process yielded a total of 1535 accepted vouchers. A large number of different collectors, including many famous names, were responsible for this wonderful list. Table 1 lists the dominant collectors, where I have combined all collector groups containing the dominant collector under that collector's name. (For example, Jon Rebman has vouchers with 24 different combinations of collector names; all combinations were subsumed under Jon P. Rebman et al.)
Thanks to a communication with Duncan Bell Potentilla rimicola was subsequently removed from the voucher flora. Thanks to Aaron Schusteff, Rebecca Peters, and Barbara Ertter, it turned out that this voucher, DS39086, was actually Potentilla rivalis, and the apparent misdetermination was a databasing error. It isn't clear where exactly the locality was for this voucher since it just says Mountain Springs, so it may or may not be in the area considered here. I'll add it to the next iteration of the flora, since it might be found in this area.
Table 1. Dominant Collectors for the Mountain Springs Grade Area
#V Collector 126 Jon P. Rebman et al 94 Joni Ward et al 72 Duncan S. Bell et al 70 Edgar A. Mearns 59 Roxana S. Ferris 56 A. C. Sanders et al 56 Mary F. Spencer 48 Frank F. Gander 48 F. W. Peirson
These collectors were responsible for 629 of the 1535 accepted vouchers, 41% of the total. Other notable collectors include Alice Eastwood, Lyman Benson, W. L. Jepson, Marcus E. Jones, S. B. Parish and C.B. Wolf. This area has obviously been a favorite stop for botanists!
The voucher list resulted in a list of 340 species from vouchers other than from Orcutt, plus an additional 23 species with only an Orcutt voucher that may or may not document them being here. The total voucher list contains 363 taxa.
It is possible that some of the 340 species in the following checklist from collectors other than Orcutt are not actually in the Mountain Springs Grade area, since Orcutt was not alone in having somewhat vague localities, especially among the earlier collectors.
The checklist below contains 185 observed species, from the union of the Rebman list, the Crouse list, and the field surveys.
The total checklist contains 388 taxa.
The checklist does not contain Herissantia crispa, which was reported as being in this area in Beauchamp's 1986 Flora of San Diego County. If anyone has any information as to the source of this report in Beauchamp, please let me know.
See Information about the order in which the species are presented, and the links from the Scientific Name and Common Name.
The column #V gives the number of vouchers for this area, with a maximum value of 9. If a species was only vouchered by Orcutt, the column contains ? unless it was also in Rebman's or Crouse's checklists. Note that these species marked with a ? may not actually be present here!
The column #Pls gives the minimum number of plants, up to a maximum of 99 plants, for each species observed in the surveys of the two different areas. The area surveyed one mile east of the Mountain Springs Exit on I-8 is in the column with header East. The area surveyed near the Mountain Springs Exit on 11/17/14 is in the column with header MS. An O in the column for Mountain Springs indicate a species not observed in the survey, but which was was in Rebman's Checklist for Mountain Springs, or was observed by Mike Crouse on 2/13/13.
One species, ironwood, Olneya tesota, has a pl? in this column to indicate it may have been planted. It is near the old cabin in an alcove just south of I-8.
Some species in each surveyed area need further work to be certain of their determination; these species are marked with the usual qualifiers in the #Pls columns.
Version for printing, without lines and other text on this page: html (11 pages) or pdf Clickbook booklet (3 double-sided pages). (See printing instructions for an explanation of these options.).
# Famil Scientific Name (*)Common Name #V #Pls East MS Lycophytes 1 Selag Selaginella eremophila desert spike-moss 5 Ferns 2 Pteri Cheilanthes covillei beady lipfern 5 30 3 Pteri Cheilanthes parryi woolly lipfern 4 4 Pteri Cheilanthes viscida sticky lipfern 9 2 99 5 Pteri Notholaena californica ssp. californica California cloak fern 3 5 3 6 Pteri Pellaea mucronata var. mucronata bird's-foot fern 8 1 20 Gymnosperms 7 Cupre Juniperus californica California juniper 9 10 99 8 Ephed Ephedra aspera Mormon tea 9 9 Ephed Ephedra californica desert tea 6 10 Ephed Ephedra nevadensis Nevada ephedra 5 ~30 ~99 11 Ephed Ephedra viridis green ephedra 3 12 Pinac Pinus monophylla pinyon pine 3 13 Pinac Pinus quadrifolia Parry pinyon pine 2 Magnoliids 14 Sauru Anemopsis californica yerba mansa 20 Eudicots 15 Acant Justicia californica chuparosa 9 8 16 Amara Amaranthus fimbriatus fringed amaranth 5 17 Amara Amaranthus palmeri Palmer's amaranth 1 18 Amara Amaranthus powellii Powell's amaranth 1 19 Anaca Rhus ovata sugar bush 6 1 6 20 Apiac Apiastrum angustifolium wild celery 1 4 21 Apocy Asclepias albicans white-stemmed milkweed 7 10 4 22 Apocy Asclepias subulata rush milkweed 1 23 Apocy Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii climbing milkweed 1 50 24 Apocy Funastrum hirtellum rambling milkweed 2 25 Apocy Matelea parvifolia spearleaf 2 9 26 Aster Acamptopappus sphaerocephalus var. hirtellus hairy goldenhead ? 27 Aster Adenophyllum porophylloides San Felipe dogweed 9 10 15 28 Aster Ambrosia acanthicarpa bur-ragweed 1 29 Aster Ambrosia dumosa burroweed 9 99 99 30 Aster Ambrosia salsola var. salsola cheesebush 3 99 31 Aster Anisocoma acaulis scale-bud 2 32 Aster Artemisia dracunculus wild tarragon 2 33 Aster Artemisia ludoviciana ssp. albula white mugwort 3 10 34 Aster Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana mountain sagebrush ? 35 Aster Baccharis brachyphylla short-leaved baccharis 1 25 36 Aster Baccharis salicifolia ssp. salicifolia mule fat 3 37 Aster Baccharis sergiloides desert baccharis 2 50 10 38 Aster Bahiopsis parishii Parish's viguiera 9 99 99 39 Aster Bebbia juncea var. aspera sweetbush 5 50 2 40 Aster Brickellia atractyloides var. arguta California spear-leaved brickellia 5 5 41 Aster Brickellia atractyloides var. odontolepis California spear-leaved brickellia 8 42 Aster Brickellia californica California brickellbush ? 25 43 Aster Brickellia frutescens shrubby brickellia 9 1 20 44 Aster Chaenactis artemisiifolia meally white pincushion 1 45 Aster Chaenactis fremontii Fremont pincushion 9 99 46 Aster Chloracantha spinosa var. spinosa spiny goldenbush ? 47 Aster Deinandra floribunda Tecate tarplant 3 48 Aster Dieteria canescens var. canescens hoary-aster 2 49 Aster Dieteria canescens var. leucanthemifolia hoary-aster 1 50 Aster Encelia farinosa brittlebush 7 99 99 51 Aster Encelia frutescens button encelia 1 52 Aster Ericameria brachylepis boundary goldenbush 9 50 99 53 Aster Ericameria linearifolia narrowleaf goldenbush 6 54 Aster Ericameria pinifolia pine goldenbush ? 55 Aster Erigeron canadensis horseweed 15 56 Aster Eriophyllum wallacei var. wallacei Wallace's woolly daisy 9 99 57 Aster Grindelia camporum Great Valley gumweed 1 58 Aster Gutierrezia californica California matchweed 6 25 99 59 Aster Gutierrezia sarothrae matchweed 3 60 Aster Hulsea mexicana Mexican hulsea 1 61 Aster Isocoma acradenia var. eremophila solitary-leaved alkali goldenbush 4 99 20 62 Aster Lasthenia gracilis goldfields 3 63 Aster Layia platyglossa common tidy-tips 1 64 Aster Leptosyne californica California coreopsis 3 65 Aster Logfia arizonica Arizona herba impia 1 66 Aster Logfia filaginoides California filago 1 20 67 Aster Madia gracilis slender madia 1 68 Aster Malacothrix clevelandii annual malacothrix ? 69 Aster Malacothrix glabrata desert dandelion 1 99 70 Aster Monoptilon bellioides desert star 3 50 71 Aster Palafoxia arida var. arida Spanish needle 2 1 72 Aster Pectis papposa var. papposa chinch-weed 1 O 73 Aster Perityle emoryi Emory's rock-daisy 9 99 74 Aster Pleurocoronis pluriseta arrow-leaf 4 99 1 75 Aster Pluchea sericea arrow-weed 4 99 76 Aster Porophyllum gracile odora 9 1 10 77 Aster Prenanthella exigua bright-white 2 78 Aster Pseudognaphalium canescens white everlasting 3 79 Aster Rafinesquia neomexicana desert chicory 9 20 80 Aster Senecio californicus California groundsel 4 81 Aster Senecio flaccidus var. douglasii bush senecio 1 82 Aster Senecio flaccidus var. monoensis Mono ragwort 5 3 83 Aster Senecio mohavensis Mojave ragwort 7 99 84 Aster Solidago confinis southern goldenrod 1 85 Aster Sonchus oleraceus *sow thistle 2 86 Aster Stephanomeria exigua slender wreathplant 1 87 Aster Stephanomeria pauciflora wire-lettuce 7 99 15 88 Aster Stylocline gnaphaloides everlasting nest-straw 2 89 Aster Stylocline psilocarphoides Peck's stylocline 1 90 Aster Symphyotrichum defoliatum San Bernardino aster 1 91 Aster Trichoptilium incisum yellow-head 2 92 Aster Trixis californica var. californica California trixis 8 99 50 93 Aster Uropappus lindleyi silver puffs 2 2 94 Bigno Chilopsis linearis ssp. arcuata desert-willow 5 4 95 Borag Amsinckia intermedia common fiddleneck 3 30 96 Borag Amsinckia tessellata var. tessellata bristly fiddleneck 1 30 97 Borag Cryptantha angustifolia narrow-leaved cryptantha 1 1 98 Borag Cryptantha barbigera var. barbigera bearded cryptantha 9 99 99 Borag Cryptantha barbigera var. fergusoniae Santa Rosa Mountain bearded cryptantha ~50 100 Borag Cryptantha circumscissa var. circumscissa cushion cryptantha 2 101 Borag Cryptantha decipiens gravel cryptantha 5 102 Borag Cryptantha intermedia var. intermedia popcorn flower 4 40 103 Borag Cryptantha maritima Guadalupe cryptantha 1 5 104 Borag Cryptantha micrantha var. lepida mountain red-root cryptantha 2 105 Borag Cryptantha microstachys Tejon cryptantha 1 106 Borag Cryptantha nevadensis Nevada cryptantha 3 107 Borag Cryptantha pterocarya var. pterocarya wing-nut cryptantha 2 30 108 Borag Cryptantha pterocarya var. purpusii Purpus' wing-nut cryptantha 2 5 109 Borag Cryptantha racemosa bushy cryptantha 3 110 Borag Emmenanthe penduliflora var. penduliflora whispering bells 5 99 111 Borag Eriodictyon trichocalyx var. lanatum smoothleaf yerba santa 5 5 112 Borag Eucrypta chrysanthemifolia var. bipinnatifida eucrypta 3 20 113 Borag Eucrypta micrantha desert eucrypta 1 114 Borag Heliotropium curassavicum var. oculatum seaside heliotrope 1 2 115 Borag Nama demissa var. demissa purple mat 4 99 116 Borag Nemophila menziesii var. integrifolia baby blue eyes 1 117 Borag Pectocarya penicillata combseed ? 10 118 Borag Pectocarya platycarpa broad-fruited combseed 2 119 Borag Pectocarya recurvata curvenut combseed 1 99 120 Borag Pectocarya setosa moth combseed 1 121 Borag Phacelia affinis limestone phacelia 1 122 Borag Phacelia campanularia ssp. campanularia desert bluebells 1 123 Borag Phacelia crenulata var. minutiflora little-flowered heliotrope phacelia 2 124 Borag Phacelia cryptantha limestone phacelia 1 99 125 Borag Phacelia distans common phacelia 9 99 126 Borag Phacelia minor wild canterbury bells 1 99 127 Borag Pholisma arenarium sand plant 5 128 Borag Pholistoma auritum var. arizonicum Arizona fiesta flower 2 129 Borag Pholistoma membranaceum white fiesta flower 9 40 130 Borag Plagiobothrys arizonicus Arizona popcorn flower ?1 131 Borag Plagiobothrys jonesii Jones' popcorn flower 1 132 Borag Tiquilia palmeri Palmer's coldenia 1 133 Brass Boechera perennans perennial rock-cress 7 O 134 Brass Boechera pulchra, B. xylopoda beautiful rock-cress 5 135 Brass Boechera retrofracta X Holboell's rock-cress 1 136 Brass Boechera xylopoda slender & beautiful rock-cress 3 137 Brass Brassica tournefortii *Asian mustard 99 99 138 Brass Caulanthus cooperi Cooper's jewel-flower 3 139 Brass Caulanthus lasiophyllus California mustard 1 140 Brass Descurainia pinnata western tansy-mustard 1 20 141 Brass Dithyrea californica spectacle-pod ? 142 Brass Draba cuneifolia wedge-leaved draba 1 143 Brass Lepidium lasiocarpum ssp. lasiocarpum hairy-podded pepper-grass 1 15 144 Brass Sisymbrium irio *London rocket 1 50 145 Brass Sisymbrium orientale *Oriental mustard 1 146 Brass Streptanthus campestris southern jewel-flower 1 147 Brass Thysanocarpus curvipes fringe-pod 3 148 Brass Thysanocarpus curvipes ssp. curvipes fringe-pod 1 149 Brass Thysanocarpus curvipes ssp. eradiatus fringe-pod 2 99 150 Burse Bursera microphylla elephant tree 2 151 Cacta Cylindropuntia bigelovii teddy-bear cholla 3 99 152 Cacta Cylindropuntia echinocarpa silver cholla 2 153 Cacta Cylindropuntia ganderi Gander's cholla 2 20 154 Cacta Cylindropuntia wolfii Wolf's cholla 9 99 99 155 Cacta Echinocereus engelmannii Engelmann's hedgehog cactus 3 40 99 156 Cacta Ferocactus cylindraceus California barrel cactus 9 99 99 157 Cacta Mammillaria dioica California fish-hook cactus 3 30 99 158 Cacta Opuntia basilaris var. basilaris beavertail cactus 2 2 159 Cacta Opuntia chlorotica pancake prickly-pear 1 160 Cacta Opuntia phaeacantha desert prickly-pear 1 1 161 Campa Nemacladus glanduliferus glandular nemacladus ~2 162 Campa Nemacladus pinnatifidus comb-leaved nemacladus 1 163 Capri Lonicera subspicata var. denudata southern honeysuckle 1 164 Caryo Achyronychia cooperi frost mat 1 165 Cheno Atriplex canescens var. canescens four-wing saltbush 7 10 2 166 Cheno Atriplex hymenelytra desert holly 2 167 Cheno Atriplex lentiformis big saltbush 2 168 Cheno Chenopodium californicum California goosefoot 1 169 Cheno Suaeda nigra bush seepweed 3 170 Cleom Peritoma arborea bladderpod ? 171 Crass Crassula connata pygmy-weed 1 99 172 Crass Dudleya arizonica Arizona chalk dudleya 5 20 15 173 Cucur Cucurbita palmata coyote melon 2 174 Cucur Marah macrocarpa wild-cucumber 1 175 Erica Arctostaphylos glauca bigberry manzanita 7 176 Eupho Chamaesyce albomarginata rattlesnake weed 2 177 Eupho Chamaesyce maculata *spotted spurge 1 178 Eupho Chamaesyce melanadenia red-gland spurge 9 50 99 179 Eupho Chamaesyce micromera Sonoran spurge 1 180 Eupho Chamaesyce polycarpa small-seeded spurge 4 O 181 Eupho Chamaesyce serpyllifolia thyme-leafed spurge 1 182 Eupho Chamaesyce setiloba starfish (Yuma) spurge 1 183 Eupho Croton californicus California croton ? 14 184 Eupho Ditaxis lanceolata narrowleaf ditaxis 1 1 185 Eupho Ditaxis neomexicana New Mexico ditaxis 1 186 Eupho Stillingia linearifolia linear-leaved stillingia 9 99 30 187 Fabac Acmispon argophyllus var. argophyllus southern California silver-lotus 4 50 188 Fabac Acmispon glaber var. brevialatus short-winged deerweed 9 15 99? 189 Fabac Acmispon haydonii pygmy lotus 9 99 99? 190 Fabac Acmispon heermannii var. heermannii silky lotus 1 191 Fabac Acmispon parviflorus small-flowered lotus 1 192 Fabac Acmispon rigidus desert lotus 1 193 Fabac Acmispon strigosus strigose lotus 1 50 194 Fabac Astragalus coccineus scarlet milk-vetch 9 195 Fabac Astragalus crotalariae Salton milk-vetch 1 196 Fabac Astragalus didymocarpus var. dispermus dwarf white milk-vetch 1 197 Fabac Astragalus didymocarpus var. obispoensis San Luis Obispo milk-vetch 2 198 Fabac Astragalus douglasii var. perstrictus Jacumba milk-vetch 2 199 Fabac Astragalus insularis var. harwoodii Harwood's milk-vetch 1 200 Fabac Astragalus lentiginosus freckled milk-vetch 3 201 Fabac Astragalus palmeri Palmer's milk-vetch 9 202 Fabac Lathyrus splendens pride-of-California 2 203 Fabac Lupinus arizonicus Arizona lupine 3 204 Fabac Lupinus concinnus bajada lupine 4 99 205 Fabac Lupinus concinnus ssp. orcuttii bajada lupine 2 206 Fabac Lupinus excubitus var. austromontanus mountain grape-soda lupine 1 207 Fabac Lupinus excubitus var. hallii bush lupine 2 20 208 Fabac Lupinus excubitus var. medius Mountain Springs bush lupine 6 99 209 Fabac Lupinus sparsiflorus Coulter's lupine 2 10 210 Fabac Melilotus indicus *sourclover 1 211 Fabac Olneya tesota ironwood pl? 1 212 Fabac Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana honey mesquite 8 25 1 213 Fabac Psorothamnus arborescens var. simplicifolius California indigo-bush 1 214 Fabac Psorothamnus schottii indigo bush 8 10 215 Fabac Psorothamnus spinosus smoke tree 3 216 Fabac Senegalia greggii catclaw 3 99 99 217 Fabac Trifolium willdenovii tomcat clover 1 218 Fabac Trifolium wormskioldii cows clover ? 219 Fagac Quercus chrysolepis canyon live oak 1 220 Fagac Quercus cornelius-mulleri desert scrub oak 9 221 Fouqu Fouquieria splendens ssp. splendens ocotillo 9 99 30 222 Garry Garrya flavescens ashy silk tassel ? 223 Garry Garrya veatchii canyon silktassel 2 224 Genti Eustoma exaltatum ssp. exaltatum catchfly prairie-gentian 1 225 Geran Erodium cicutarium *redstem filaree 2 99 226 Geran Erodium texanum Texas filaree 1 227 Gross Ribes indecorum white-flowering currant ? 228 Gross Ribes quercetorum oak gooseberry 1 229 Krame Krameria bicolor white rhatany 9 20 99 230 Krame Krameria erecta Pima rhatany 9 1 30 231 Lamia Hyptis emoryi desert-lavender 7 50 232 Lamia Salvia apiana white sage 9 99 15 233 Lamia Salvia carduacea thistle sage ? 234 Lamia Salvia columbariae chia 6 99 235 Lamia Salvia vaseyi Vasey's sage 9 O 236 Lamia Trichostema parishii Parish's bluecurls ? 237 Loasa Mentzelia albicaulis white-stemmed blazing star 20 238 Loasa Mentzelia hirsutissima hairy stickleaf 2 239 Loasa Mentzelia involucrata bracted blazing star 2 240 Loasa Mentzelia tricuspis three-pointed blazing star 1 241 Loasa Mentzelia veatchiana Veatch's blazing star 2 242 Loasa Petalonyx thurberi ssp. thurberi Thurber's sandpaper-plant 4 15 243 Lythr Lythrum californicum California loosestrife 1 5 244 Malva Fremontodendron californicum California fremontia ? 245 Malva Hibiscus denudatus rock hibiscus 4 246 Malva Sphaeralcea ambigua var. rosacea rosy apricot mallow 8 35 20 247 Malva Sphaeralcea orcuttii Carrizo mallow 1 248 Monti Calyptridium monandrum sand cress 2 99 249 Nycta Boerhavia triquetra var. intermedia fivewing spiderling 2 5 250 Nycta Mirabilis laevis var. crassifolia California four o'clock 3 251 Nycta Mirabilis laevis var. retrorsa Bigelow's desert four-o'clock 4 3 10 252 Nycta Mirabilis tenuiloba slender-lobed four o'clock 9 40 253 Oleac Menodora scabra var. glabrescens broom twinberry 6 1 254 Onagr Camissoniopsis hirtella field suncup 1 255 Onagr Camissoniopsis pallida ssp. pallida pale suncup 3 99 256 Onagr Chylismia cardiophylla ssp. cardiophylla heartleaf suncup 3 257 Onagr Chylismia claviformis ssp. peirsonii brown-eyed primrose 9 258 Onagr Epilobium canum California fuchsia 2 259 Onagr Epilobium canum ssp. garrettii Garrett's California-fuchsia 1 260 Onagr Epilobium canum ssp. latifolium mountain California-fuchsia ? 261 Onagr Eremothera boothii ssp. condensata Booth's evening primrose 1 262 Onagr Eremothera chamaenerioides long-fruit suncup 2 263 Onagr Eulobus californicus California suncup 5 99 264 Onagr Oenothera californica ssp. californica California evening-primrose 3 265 Oroba Castilleja foliolosa woolly Indian paintbrush 8 266 Papav Eschscholzia minutiflora ssp. minutiflora small-flowered poppy 9 99 267 Phrym Mimulus aurantiacus var. aridus low bush monkeyflower 6 2 2 268 Phrym Mimulus bigelovii var. bigelovii Bigelow's monkeyflower 12 269 Phrym Mimulus guttatus common monkeyflower 1 270 Plant Keckiella antirrhinoides var. antirrhinoides chaparral beardtongue 1 271 Plant Keckiella antirrhinoides var. microphylla little-leaved chaparral beardtongue 4 272 Plant Mohavea confertiflora ghost flower 3 273 Plant Penstemon clevelandii var. clevelandii Cleveland's beardtongue 9 5 5 274 Plant Penstemon heterophyllus var. australis southern foothill penstemon ? 275 Plant Plantago ovata desert plantain 2 99 276 Polem Aliciella latifolia ssp. latifolia broad-leaf gilia 1 277 Polem Allophyllum glutinosum sticky false-gilia 1 278 Polem Eriastrum densifolium ssp. elongatum giant woolly-star ? 279 Polem Eriastrum eremicum ssp. eremicum desert woolly-star 2 99 280 Polem Eriastrum sapphirinum sapphire woolly-star 1 281 Polem Gilia diegensis coastal gilia 2 282 Polem Gilia stellata star gilia 3 99 283 Polem Ipomopsis tenuifolia slender-leaved ipomopsis 4 1 284 Polem Linanthus bellus desert beauty 2 285 Polem Linanthus bigelovii Bigelow's linanthus 1 286 Polem Linanthus pungens granite prickly phlox 9 3 2 287 Polem Loeseliastrum schottii Schott's calico 4 3 288 Polem Phlox stansburyi cold-desert phlox 1 289 Polyg Chorizanthe brevicornu var. brevicornu brittle spineflower 4 1 290 Polyg Chorizanthe fimbriata var. laciniata lace-fringed spineflower 8 291 Polyg Chorizanthe staticoides Turkish rugging 1 292 Polyg Eriogonum davidsonii Davidson's buckwheat 1 293 Polyg Eriogonum elongatum var. elongatum long-stemmed buckwheat 1 294 Polyg Eriogonum fasciculatum var. flavoviride California buckwheat 1 295 Polyg Eriogonum fasciculatum var. foliolosum California buckwheat 1 296 Polyg Eriogonum fasciculatum var. polifolium California buckwheat 9 50 99 297 Polyg Eriogonum gracile slender buckwheat ? 298 Polyg Eriogonum inflatum desert trumpet 9 8 15 299 Polyg Eriogonum maculatum spotted buckwheat 2 300 Polyg Eriogonum parishii Parish's buckwheat 1 301 Polyg Eriogonum reniforme kidney-leaf buckwheat 2 302 Polyg Eriogonum thomasii Thomas' buckwheat 3 ?3 303 Polyg Eriogonum thurberi Thurber's buckwheat 1 304 Polyg Eriogonum wrightii var. membranaceum Wright's buckwheat 3 10 30 305 Polyg Eriogonum wrightii var. nodosum Wright's buckwheat 1 3 306 Polyg Pterostegia drymarioides threadstem 2 5 307 Ranun Anemone tuberosa tuber anemone 1 308 Ranun Clematis pauciflora virgin's bower 1 309 Ranun Delphinium parishii ssp. subglobosum intermediate larkspur 6 ~2 310 Ranun Delphinium parryi ssp. parryi blue larkspur 1 311 Rhamn Ceanothus cuneatus var. cuneatus buck brush ? 312 Rhamn Ceanothus leucodermis chaparral whitethorn 2 313 Rhamn Ziziphus obtusifolia var. canescens graythorn 1 314 Rhamn Ziziphus parryi var. parryi lotebush 4 10 315 Rosac Adenostoma fasciculatum chamise 1 316 Rosac Adenostoma sparsifolium red shanks 3 317 Rosac Cercocarpus minutiflorus San Diego mountain mahogany 2 318 Rosac Coleogyne ramosissima black brush 10 319 Rosac Prunus fremontii desert apricot 9 99 99 320 Rosac Purshia tridentata var. glandulosa desert bitterbrush 2 321 Rubia Galium angustifolium narrow-leaved bedstraw 1 322 Rubia Galium stellatum star-flowered bedstraw 9 5 10 323 Rutac Thamnosma montana turpentine broom 9 1 50 324 Salic Populus fremontii ssp. fremontii Fremont cottonwood 3 325 Salic Salix exigua var. exigua narrowleaf willow 1 326 Salic Salix laevigata red willow 3 327 Simmo Simmondsia chinensis jojoba 9 20 99 328 Solan Datura discolor desert thornapple 1 329 Solan Datura wrightii sacred datura 1 2 330 Solan Lycium andersonii Anderson's boxthorn 5 60 ~30 331 Solan Lycium parishii Parish's boxthorn 1 1? 332 Solan Nicotiana glauca *tree tobacco 5? 333 Solan Nicotiana obtusifolia desert tobacco 3 40 1 334 Solan Physalis crassifolia thick-leaved ground cherry 5 4 2 335 Solan Physalis philadelphica *tomatillo ? 336 Solan Solanum elaeagnifolium *horse-nettle ? 337 Tamar Tamarix chinensis *Chinese tamarisk 1 338 Tamar Tamarix gallica *French tamarisk 1 339 Tamar Tamarix parviflora *tamarisk 1 340 Tamar Tamarix ramosissima *saltcedar 3 99 30 341 Urtic Parietaria hespera var. hespera pellitory 1 25 342 Urtic Urtica urens *dwarf nettle 1 343 Visca Phoradendron bolleanum dense mistletoe 7 344 Visca Phoradendron californicum desert mistletoe 9 50 20 345 Zygop Fagonia laevis California fagonia 5 346 Zygop Larrea tridentata creosote bush 8 1 Monocots 347 Agava Agave deserti var. deserti desert agave 9 99 99 348 Agava Hesperocallis undulata desert lily 1 349 Agava Yucca schidigera Mohave yucca 7 10 350 Areca Washingtonia filifera California fan palm 1 99 20 351 Cyper Eleocharis montevidensis sand spikerush 1 352 Junca Juncus acutus ssp. leopoldii spiny rush 7 99 4 353 Junca Juncus bufonius var. bufonius toad rush 1 354 Junca Juncus mexicanus Mexican rush 25 355 Junca Juncus torreyi Torrey's rush 10? 356 Junca Juncus xiphioides iris-leaved rush 1 357 Poace Aristida adscensionis six-weeks three-awn 1 358 Poace Aristida purpurea purple three-awn 99 20 359 Poace Avena barbata *slender wild oats 1 5 5 360 Poace Avena fatua *wild oats 1 361 Poace Bothriochloa barbinodis cane bluestem 1 362 Poace Bromus diandrus *ripgut brome 3 10 363 Poace Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens *red brome 3 99 99 364 Poace Distichlis spicata saltgrass 3 99 99 365 Poace Echinochloa colona *jungle rice 1 366 Poace Echinochloa crus-galli *barnyard grass 1 367 Poace Eragrostis cilianensis *stinkgrass 1 368 Poace Eragrostis pectinacea var. pectinacea tufted lovegrass 1 369 Poace Festuca octoflora six-weeks fescue 2 370 Poace Hilaria rigida big galleta 1 O 371 Poace Leptochloa fusca ssp. uninervia Mexican sprangletop 1 372 Poace Melica frutescens tall melica 7 5 373 Poace Melica imperfecta coast-range melic 7 374 Poace Muhlenbergia rigens deergrass 1 375 Poace Poa secunda one-sided blue grass 1 376 Poace Poa secunda ssp. secunda one-sided bluegrass 1 377 Poace Polypogon monspeliensis *rabbits-foot grass 2 25 378 Poace Polypogon viridis *green bentgrass 1 379 Poace Schismus barbatus *Mediterranean schismus 2 99 380 Poace Sporobolus airoides alkali sacaton 3 50 99 381 Poace Stipa coronata giant needlegrass 1 382 Poace Stipa hymenoides Indian ricegrass 1 7 383 Poace Stipa parishii var. parishii Parish's needlegrass ~1 384 Poace Stipa speciosa desert needlegrass 4 40 20 385 Rusca Nolina bigelovii Bigelow's nolina 9 99 99 386 Themi Dichelostemma capitatum ssp. capitatum blue dicks O 387 Themi Dichelostemma capitatum ssp. pauciflorum few-flowered blue dicks 2 388 Typha Typha domingensis southern cattail ~99
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Last update: 23 March 2015