Panorama of Hellhole Canyon, Flatcat Canyon, and the Hellhole Canyon alluvial fan © Mike Crouse (labeled version)

Hellhole Palms © Tom Chester
(larger version)

Flora of Hellhole Canyon

Procedure For Compiling The Checklist
Important Caveats

Maidenhair Falls © Rick Halsey
((larger version)


This page gives just a flora of the Hellhole Canyon Area, updated as of 13 December 2013. The text on this page has not been revised to reflect that, except in the checklist portion.

Hellhole Canyon and Culp Valley are a natural floral unit, since the upper part of Hellhole Canyon is most-easily accessed via Culp Valley. The main access road to Borrego Springs in this area travels through Culp Valley and ends at the bottom of Hellhole Canyon. One of the main hiking trails in this area, the California Riding and Hiking Trail, goes from Culp Valley to the bottom of Hellhole Canyon.

Culp Valley is the first part of Anza-Borrego Desert State Park encountered by visitors traveling along S22 from Ranchita and the Montezuma Valley. You enter Anza-Borrego Desert State Park just before the road crests at the lip of the Salton Sea erosional basin and you travel down the Montezuma Grade. This is a very dramatic way to enter the park, with terrain so challenging that no road was built until S22 was finished in 1964 after ten years of construction.

The first five miles of S22 past the crest, from mile marker 6.5 to 11.6 on S22, is in Culp Valley. There is a popular campground, the Culp Valley Primitive Campground, at a turnoff near mile marker 9.2 on S22. After mile marker 11.6, the road descends into Culp Canyon, and then heads northeast along the east side of the ridge separating Hellhole Canyon from the southern part of Borrego Valley.

Immediately before the final sweeping curve to the right on S22, just before S22 meets Palm Canyon Road (turnoff to Visitor Center) at the base of Hellhole Canyon on the western outskirts of Borrego Springs, there is a large parking lot, with two restrooms, on the left (west side of S22). (See map here.) This is the parking lot for the Hellhole Canyon Trail, and for Little Surprise Canyon, as well as another access point for the California Hiking and Riding Trail.

Hellhole Canyon is one of the more popular areas of Anza-Borrego Desert State Park. The five mile roundtrip hike to Maidenhair Falls and the Hellhole Palms, with flowing water most of the year, is the top attraction. The Visitor Center often directs non-hikers to Little Surprise Canyon, right next to the Hellhole Canyon parking area, for a good wildflower show in the spring that can be enjoyed with very little walking.

The lower part of the California Hiking and Riding Trail crosses the base of the Hellhole Canyon alluvial fan, beginning at the southeast corner of the Visitor Center parking lot and crossing the Hellhole Canyon Trail, and traveling up the south wall of Hellhole Canyon to Culp Valley.

This checklist is only a start at the flora of this Canyon, since many of the entries come from vouchers I haven't yet reviewed, and I haven't yet vouchered all of the new records I have found so that my determinations can be reviewed. This checklist can only be considered a decent flora after I finish both of those tasks. This checklist will be revised as I work on both of those tasks.


Hellhole Canyon is west of Borrego Springs; Culp Valley is a flattish valley above the south wall of Hellhole Canyon:

The boundaries of this Flora are shown in more detail in the map below:

The Culp Valley Floral Area includes Culp Valley itself, plus the following areas:

Culp Valley itself extends down to 2800 feet elevation, where Culp Canyon begins.

The total elevation range for the Culp Valley Floral Area is 2800 - 4600 feet.

The Hellhole Canyon Flora Area follows the drainage basin of Hellhole Canyon up to an elevation of 3000 feet, extending to the ridge containing Panorama Outlook on the north, the 3000 foot contour in the west and southwest, and following the top of the ridge extending from Culp Valley to Borrego Springs on the southeast. The latter ridge divides the drainage to Hellhole Canyon and the drainage to the portion of the Borrego Valley that is south of Christmas Circle in Borrego Springs.

The total elevation range for the Hellhole Canyon Area is 835 feet at the Visitor Center to 3000 feet.

The following map shows the areas surveyed so far that are included in the checklist below:

Note that very little of Culp Valley has been surveyed so far, being only covered by most of the top part of the California Riding and Hiking Trail.

The checklist below contains separate entries for the species found in each of these areas:

Procedure For Compiling The Checklist

The Checklist was compiled from field work done by myself and coworkers, and from online vouchers.

Field Work

The checklist from our field work was compiled using the results up to and including 15 January 2010, which consisted of a total of 17 different full days of field work with a total of 40 people-days. The largest number of trips were done by the following people:

# field daysPerson
17Tom Chester
5Kay Madore
3Mike Crouse
2Wayne Armstrong and Paula Knoll

People devoting one day to a survey were: Adrienne Ballwey, James Dillane, Michael Charters, Jeff Field, Kate Harper, Frank Harris, RT Hawke, Shaun Hawke, Jim Roberts, Aaron Schusteff, Kate Shapiro, Pam Pallette, Vince Balch, Preston Taylor, and Richard Sapiro.

The surveys were all done in the non-prime time of December and January, except for one survey of Hellhole Canyon on 25 March 2005 and one survey of Little Surprise Canyon on 1 April 2008. See the links immediately above for detailed information about the area covered, the dates of coverage, and the participants, for each of the surveyed sections.

The following table gives the number of species found in each area, the total number and the total number fairly confidently identified, along with elevation ranges and miles covered in each survey area, in order of descending elevation of the survey:

Survey# milesElevation (feet)# Taxa# Identified Taxa
California Riding and Hiking Trail Top Part2.38258035209384
California Riding and Hiking Trail Bottom Part3.108352580111106
Hellhole Canyon Trail2.658802040187182
Little Surprise Canyon~2.2588010809796

Because most of the trips were done in December and January, some of the species found could not be fully identified, although they could be distinguished in the field. These species were usually dead plants from the previous year, but sometimes were babies of the current year. Examples are species in the following genera: Datura, Nemacladus, Cryptantha, Lupinus. Observations of those species are not present in the checklist below, which contains only the fairly-confidently-identified taxa. Hence those surveys should not be considered as complete records of all the species in the area surveyed.

Most of these taxa are almost certainly identified correctly, but a small percentage of the fairly-confidently-identified taxa are what I call 95% confidence taxa. These are ones that are highly likely to be the determined taxa, but did not have flowers or fruit to make the determination 100%. One would expect that up to 5% of such species might turn out to be incorrectly identified.

Altogether, 246 separate taxa were found in these surveys.


The vouchers were obtained from searches of the Consortium of California Herbaria on 19 January 2010.

The Consortium database was searched for the subset of vouchers with coordinates using a rectangle with corners of (33.264,-116.456) and (33.231, -116.406) for Hellhole Canyon, and another rectangle with corners of (33.234, -116.504) and (33.174, -116.433) for Culp Valley. In addition, the database was searched for all vouchers, with and without coordinates, containing one of the following words in the locality field: Hellhole, Hell hole, Flatcat, Flat cat, and Culp. Searches were also made using the name of springs in Culp Valley, but no additional vouchers were retrieved.

In addition, a separate search was made for every taxon found in the field surveys that had no vouchers found in either area. This did not result in any additional vouchers for this area, making it likely that the previous searches were highly complete.

Duplicate vouchers were then eliminated. The locality field in each remaining voucher was then manually reviewed, and the vouchers were placed in the Culp Valley Floral Area, the Hellhole Canyon Floral Area, or were discarded if they were from another area. Vouchers from Culp Canyon were discarded, since they are outside the Culp Valley Area defined here.

Two vouchers of Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense, were removed from further consideration, since they were found only near an old homestead in Culp Valley and this species is not otherwise known to be reproducing in the wild in southern California.

The determination on one voucher of Quercus john-tuckeri was treated as a voucher of Q. cornelius-mulleri, since that is a highly-likely misdetermination.

One voucher, for Cryptantha intermedia from the Hellhole Canyon alluvial fan, was taken to be misdetermined and not included in the voucher list.

A total of 369 vouchers were found, 85 from the Hellhole Canyon Area and 284 from the Culp Valley area.

Altogether, 202 separate taxa were found in these vouchers, 60 from Hellhole Canyon and 167 from Culp Valley.

The top collectors for Hellhole Canyon were:

# Vouchers% VouchersCollector(s)
2226Larry Hendrickson
1518Carl Epling, Wm. Robison
1315R. Mitchel Beauchamp (10 with R. C. Pierce)

The top collectors for Culp Valley were:

# Vouchers% VouchersCollector(s)
10136Frank F. Gander
228Melvin M. Sweet
186Michael G. Simpson
145Bill Sullivan
124CRES Native Seed Gene Bank, J Dunn, L Lippitt, S Anderson
114Richard Mallory
114Suzanne Bell
104C. W. Tilforth, John Dourley
104Kim Marsden, with Ruth Otis, R. Ehly, G. Clark, M. J. Churchwell

Important Caveats

Please note the following important caveats about this preliminary Checklist:

Checklist for Hellhole Canyon

I make the working list available online for two reasons. First, I know others will appreciate having such a list, even if it is preliminary. Second, I hope I will get feedback from others who find errors or omissions in this list.

The Checklist follows the 2012 Jepson Manual Second Edition with only a few exceptions.

The Checklist is sorted first by the eight evolutionary categories (clades) used in the 2012 Second Edition Jepson Manual - lycophytes, ferns, etc., to eudicots and monocots - and then by family and scientific name. The clades are labeled in the Checklist. Note that this changes the order of presentation of the taxa from that of the 1993 First Edition.

The family name is abbreviated to the first six characters in order to save space in the table rows.

An asterisk before the Common Name indicates a non-native taxon.

The column labeled #Pls gives a minimum estimate of the number of plants from the field surveys, up to a maximum of 99 plants, for species seen in the field surveys for which abundances were noted.

The column labeled #V gives the number of vouchers in Henderson Canyon.

The scientific name is linked to the latest online Jepson Manual description for each species, which also gives the months in which each species flowers. That link also gives a map of where the species occurs in California; a plot of elevation vs. latitude for California; and a histogram of the voucher collections by month.

A few species may not have working links, if their names have been updated more recently (such as Mimulus diffusus, which is still listed under M. palmeri in the online flora), or if they are reserved-judgment taxa which are listed in the entry for another taxon name. However, as of 16 January2013, the Jepson Manual links have all been updated to link to the parent species for the taxa without their own entries. Taxa linked to anything other than the Jepson Manual link for the full scientific name used below have been indicated with a ^ after the scientific name, and are discussed here.

The common name for most species in the checklist is linked to Calphotos to give pictures of most taxa. Of course, there is no guarantee that the Calphotos pictures are correctly identified.

Note that the link will not always return pictures, since not every species has pictures at Calphotos, and a number of species still have their Calphotos pictures under the Jepson Manual First Edition Names. Some links have been made to the Calphotos pictures using the First Edition Jepson Manual name, if there are no pictures under the Second Edition name. Of course, that may result in a link with no pictures if those the names of those Calphotos pix are updated in the future to the Second Edition names.

Note also that the links below will return only the specified taxon at Calphotos, and not any subtaxa; i.e., a link to Cryptantha barbigera will not return photos of Cryptantha barbigera var. barbigera. There may be additional pictures at Calphotos under a different scientific name such as the First Edition Jepson Manual name.

Some links, such as for Bochera perennans, go to special pages with more information on those species.

As of 14 January 2013, the picture links have all been updated to link to a page that has pictures. Taxa linked to anything other than the Calphotos page of their full scientific name used below have been indicated with a ^ after the common name.

If you find any links from either the scientific or common names below that do not work, please let us know so we can update them.

The first column after the common name is the number of vouchers in the Hellhole Canyon Area, column header #V.

The next columns give the minimum number of plants observed in each area, up to a maximum of 99. The column headers are:

Version for printing, without lines and other text on this page: html (8 pages) or pdf Clickbook booklet (2 double-sided pages). (See printing instructions for an explanation of these options)

#FamilScientific Name(*)Common Name#Pls
1SelagSelaginella eremophiladesert spike-moss99
2PteriAdiantum capillus-venerismaidenhair fern99
3PteriCheilanthes covilleibeady lipfern82
4PteriCheilanthes parryiwoolly lipfern99
5PteriCheilanthes viscidasticky lipfern12
6PteriNotholaena californica ssp. californicaCalifornia cloak fern5
7PteriPellaea mucronata var. mucronatabird's-foot fern4
8CupreJuniperus californicaCalifornia juniper99
9EphedEphedra asperaMormon tea64
10AcantCarlowrightia arizonicaArizona carlowrightia99
11AcantJusticia californicachuparosa99
12AdoxaSambucus nigra ssp. caeruleablue elderberry3
13AmaraAmaranthus fimbriatusfringed amaranth99
14AnacaRhus ovatasugar bush55
15ApiacApiastrum angustifoliumwild celery10
16ApiacDaucus pusillusrattlesnake weed20
17ApiacSpermolepis infernensisHellhole Canyon spermolepis 
18ApocyFunastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegiiclimbing milkweed99
19ApocyMatelea parvifoliaspearleaf2
20AsterAdenophyllum porophylloidesSan Felipe dogweed99
21AsterAmbrosia dumosaburroweed99
22AsterAmbrosia psilostachyawestern ragweed99
23AsterAmbrosia salsola var. salsolacheesebush99
24AsterArtemisia ludoviciana ssp. albulawhite mugwort51
25AsterArtemisia ludoviciana ssp. ludovicianasilver wormwood30
26AsterBaccharis salicifolia ssp. salicifoliamule fat40
27AsterBaccharis sergiloidesdesert baccharis70
28AsterBahiopsis parishiiParish's viguiera99
29AsterBebbia juncea var. asperasweetbush99
30AsterBrickellia atractyloides var. argutaCalifornia spear-leaved brickellia1
31AsterBrickellia desertorumdesert brickellia4
32AsterBrickellia frutescensshrubby brickellia26
33AsterCalycoseris wrightiiwhite tackstem20
34AsterChaenactis carphoclinia var. carphocliniapebble pincushion99
35AsterChaenactis fremontiiFremont pincushion99
36AsterEncelia farinosabrittlebush99
37AsterEricameria brachylepisboundary goldenbush32
38AsterEricameria linearifolianarrowleaf goldenbush1
39AsterErigeron canadensishorseweed2
40AsterEriophyllum wallacei var. wallaceiWallace's woolly daisy99
41AsterGutierrezia sarothraematchweed50
42AsterLactuca serriola*prickly lettuce10
43AsterLasthenia gracilisgoldfields14
44AsterLogfia arizonicaArizona herba impia5
45AsterLogfia depressadwarf filago60
46AsterLogfia filaginoidesCalifornia filago99
47AsterMalacothrix glabratadesert dandelion99
48AsterMonoptilon bellioidesdesert star99
49AsterPectis papposa var. papposachinch-weed99
50AsterPerityle emoryiEmory's rock-daisy99
51AsterPleurocoronis plurisetaarrow-leaf10
52AsterPluchea sericeaarrow-weed10
53AsterPorophyllum gracileodora32
54AsterPseudognaphalium biolettiibicolored everlasting5
55AsterPseudognaphalium luteoalbum*common cudweed10
56AsterRafinesquia neomexicanadesert chicory99
57AsterSenecio mohavensisMojave ragwort99
58AsterSolidago velutina ssp. californicagoldenrod90
59AsterSonchus asper ssp. asper*prickly sow thistle4
60AsterSonchus oleraceus*sow thistle3
61AsterStephanomeria exigua ssp. exiguaslender wreathplant2
62AsterStephanomeria pauciflorawire-lettuce99
63AsterStylocline gnaphaloideseverlasting nest-straw52
64AsterTrichoptilium incisumyellow-head35
65AsterTrixis californica var. californicaCalifornia trixis99
66AsterUropappus lindleyisilver puffs9
67BignoChilopsis linearis ssp. arcuatadesert-willow99
68BoragAmsinckia intermediacommon fiddleneck99
69BoragAmsinckia retrorsasmall-flowered fiddleneck99
70BoragAmsinckia tessellata var. tessellatabristly fiddleneck99
71BoragCryptantha angustifolianarrow-leaved cryptantha99
72BoragCryptantha barbigera var. barbigerabearded cryptantha99
73BoragCryptantha decipiensgravel cryptantha99
74BoragCryptantha maritimaGuadalupe cryptantha99
75BoragCryptantha micrantha var. micranthared-root cryptantha9
76BoragCryptantha nevadensis var. nevadensisNevada cryptantha20
77BoragCryptantha pterocaryawing-nut cryptantha65
78BoragCryptantha utahensisscented cryptantha1
79BoragEmmenanthe penduliflora var. penduliflorawhispering bells99
80BoragEriodictyon trichocalyx var. lanatumsmoothleaf yerba santa99
81BoragEucrypta chrysanthemifolia var. bipinnatifidaeucrypta17
82BoragEucrypta micranthadesert eucrypta5
83BoragNama demissum var. demissumpurple mat99
84BoragPectocarya heterocarpachuckwalla pectocarya2
85BoragPectocarya peninsularisBaja pectocarya31
86BoragPectocarya platycarpabroad-fruited combseed2
87BoragPectocarya recurvatacurvenut combseed99
88BoragPhacelia cicutaria var. hispidacaterpillar phacelia99
89BoragPhacelia crenulata var. minutifloralittle-flowered heliotrope phacelia36
90BoragPhacelia distanscommon phacelia99
91BoragPhacelia minorwild canterbury bells99
92BoragPhacelia pedicellatapedicellate phacelia20
93BoragPhacelia ramosissimabranching phacelia99
94BoragPholistoma membranaceumwhite fiesta flower99
95BrassBrassica tournefortii*Asian mustard99
96BrassCaulanthus lasiophyllusCalifornia mustard60
97BrassDescurainia pinnatawestern tansy-mustard99
98BrassDraba cuneifoliawedge-leaved draba5
99BrassLepidium lasiocarpum ssp. lasiocarpumhairy-podded pepper-grass99
100BrassLyrocarpa coulteriCoulter's lyrepod20
101BrassNasturtium officinalewater cress20
102BrassSisymbrium irio*London rocket20
103BrassSisymbrium orientale*Oriental mustard70
104BrassThysanocarpus curvipes ssp. eradiatusfringe-pod41
105CactaCylindropuntia bigeloviiteddy-bear cholla99
106CactaCylindropuntia ganderiGander's cholla99
107CactaEchinocereus engelmanniiEngelmann's hedgehog cactus99
108CactaFerocactus cylindraceusCalifornia barrel cactus99
109CactaMammillaria dioicaCalifornia fish-hook cactus99
110CactaMammillaria tetrancistradesert fish-hook cactus1
111CactaOpuntia basilaris var. basilarisbeavertail cactus99
112CactaOpuntia phaeacanthadesert prickly-pear17
113CampaNemacladus glanduliferusglandular nemacladus99
114CampaNemacladus rubescensdesert nemacladus 
115CaryoLoeflingia squarrosaspreading loeflingia1
116ChenoChenopodium murale*nettle-leaved goosefoot42
117CleomPeritoma arborea var. angustatadesert bladderpod81
118CrassCrassula connatapygmy-weed99
119CrassDudleya saxosa ssp. aloidesdesert dudleya9
120CucurCucurbita palmatacoyote melon1
121CucurMarah macrocarpawild-cucumber6
122EuphoBernardia incanawestern bernardia4
123EuphoChamaesyce arizonicaArizona spurge11
124EuphoChamaesyce melanadeniared-gland spurge99
125EuphoChamaesyce micromeraSonoran spurge15
126EuphoChamaesyce polycarpasmall-seeded spurge99
127EuphoChamaesyce setilobastarfish (Yuma) spurge99
128EuphoDitaxis lanceolatanarrowleaf ditaxis99
129EuphoDitaxis neomexicanaNew Mexico ditaxis99
130EuphoStillingia linearifolialinear-leaved stillingia61
131FabacAcmispon glaber var. brevialatusshort-winged deerweed8
132FabacAcmispon maritimus var. brevivexillusshort-bannered coastal lotus99
133FabacAcmispon rigidusdesert lotus60
134FabacAcmispon strigosusstrigose lotus99
135FabacDalea mollissimadowny dalea7
136FabacLupinus arizonicusArizona lupine50
137FabacLupinus concinnusbajada lupine25
138FabacLupinus sparsiflorusCoulter's lupine99
139FabacMelilotus indicus*sourclover99
140FabacProsopis glandulosa var. torreyanahoney mesquite60
141FabacPsorothamnus schottiiindigo bush99
142FabacSenegalia greggiicatclaw99
143FouquFouquieria splendens ssp. splendensocotillo99
144GeranErodium cicutarium*redstem filaree99
145GeranErodium texanumTexas filaree6
146GrossRibes indecorumwhite-flowering currant3
147KrameKrameria bicolorwhite rhatany47
148KrameKrameria erectaPima rhatany99
149LamiaHyptis emoryidesert-lavender99
150LamiaSalvia apianawhite sage4
151LamiaSalvia columbariaechia99
152LamiaSalvia eremostachyadesert sage10
153LamiaSalvia vaseyiVasey's sage27
154LamiaStachys rigidarigid hedge-nettle20
155LoasaMentzelia affinisyellow blazing star20
156LoasaMentzelia involucratabracted blazing star35
157LythrLythrum californicumCalifornia loosestrife50
158MalvaAyenia compactaayenia99
159MalvaHibiscus denudatusrock hibiscus99
160MalvaHorsfordia newberryiNewberry's velvet mallow14
161MalvaMalacothamnus aboriginumIndian Valley bush mallow99
162MalvaSphaeralcea ambigua var. ambiguaapricot mallow99
163MolluMollugo cerviana*carpet-weed99
164MontiCalyptridium monandrumsand cress5
165MontiClaytonia parviflora ssp. parvifloranarrow-leaved miner's lettuce6
166NyctaAllionia incarnata var. incarnatatrailing four o'clock45
167NyctaBoerhavia coccineascarlet spiderling20
168NyctaBoerhavia triquetra var. intermediafivewing spiderling99
169NyctaMirabilis laevis var. retrorsaBigelow's desert four-o'clock99
170OleacMenodora scabra var. glabrescensbroom twinberry30
171OnagrCamissoniopsis ignotaJurupa Hills suncups5
172OnagrCamissoniopsis pallida ssp. pallidapale suncup3
173OnagrChylismia cardiophylla ssp. cardiophyllaheartleaf suncup55
174OnagrChylismia claviformis ssp. peirsoniibrown-eyed primrose99
175OnagrEpilobium canum ssp. latifoliummountain California-fuchsia99
176OnagrEremothera boothii ssp. condensataBooth's evening primrose27
177OnagrEremothera chamaenerioideslong-fruit suncup2
178OnagrEulobus californicusCalifornia suncup99
179OnagrOenothera elata ssp. hirsutissimaHooker's evening-primrose4
180OrobaCastilleja foliolosawoolly Indian paintbrush1
181PapavArgemone munitaprickly poppy10
182PapavEschscholzia californicaCalifornia poppy2
183PapavEschscholzia minutiflora ssp. minutiflorasmall-flowered poppy99
184PapavEschscholzia parishiiParish's poppy99
185PhrymMimulus bigelovii var. bigeloviiBigelow's monkeyflower99
186PhrymMimulus cardinalisscarlet monkeyflower10
187PlantAntirrhinum filipesdesert twining snapdragon6
188PlantCollinsia concolorsouthern Chinese houses40
189PlantKeckiella antirrhinoides var. microphyllalittle-leaved chaparral beardtongue2
190PlantMohavea confertifloraghost flower10
191PlantPlantago major*common plantain10
192PlantPlantago ovatadesert plantain99
193PlantVeronica anagallis-aquatica*water speedwell10
194PlataPlatanus racemosawestern sycamore50
195PolemEriastrum eremicum ssp. eremicumdesert woolly-star99
196PolemGilia capitata ssp. abrotanifoliaglobe gilia60
197PolemGilia stellatastar gilia99
198PolemLangloisia setosissima ssp. setosissimabristly langloisia99
199PolemLinanthus dichotomus ssp. pattersoniievening-snow99
200PolemLinanthus jonesiiJones' linanthus5
201PolemLoeseliastrum matthewsiidesert calico25
202PolygChorizanthe brevicornu var. brevicornubrittle spineflower80
203PolygEriogonum fasciculatum var. polifoliumCalifornia buckwheat73
204PolygEriogonum gracile var. incultumslender buckwheat3?
205PolygEriogonum inflatumdesert trumpet99
206PolygEriogonum maculatumspotted buckwheat 
207PolygEriogonum thomasiiThomas' buckwheat54
208PolygEriogonum wrightii var. nodosumWright's buckwheat40
209PolygPterostegia drymarioidesthreadstem29
210PolygRumex conglomeratus*whorled dock2
211RanunClematis lasianthavirgin's bower12
212RanunDelphinium parishii ssp. subglobosumintermediate larkspur50
213RhamnZiziphus parryi var. parryilotebush14
214RosacPrunus fremontiidesert apricot99
215RubiaGalium angustifolium ssp. borregoenseBorrego bedstraw6
216RubiaGalium stellatumstar-flowered bedstraw12
217SalicPopulus fremontii ssp. fremontiiFremont cottonwood24
218SalicSalix exigua var. exiguanarrowleaf willow35
219SalicSalix laevigatared willow60
220SimmoSimmondsia chinensisjojoba99
221SolanDatura discolordesert thornapple5
222SolanDatura wrightiisacred datura46
223SolanLycium andersoniiAnderson's desert-thorn99
224SolanNicotiana obtusifoliadesert tobacco42
225SolanPhysalis crassifoliathick-leaved ground cherry99
226SolanSolanum douglasiiwhite nightshade2
227SolanSolanum parishiiParish's purple nightshade4
228TamarTamarix ramosissima*saltcedar4
229UrticParietaria hespera var. hesperapellitory99
230ViscaPhoradendron californicumdesert mistletoe66
231VitacVitis girdianawild grape20
232ZygopFagonia laevisCalifornia fagonia99
233ZygopLarrea tridentatacreosote bush99
234AgavaAgave deserti var. desertidesert agave99
235AgavaHesperoyucca whippleichaparral yucca2
236AraceLemna minutaduckweed50
237ArecaWashingtonia filiferaCalifornia fan palm99
238JuncaJuncus mexicanusMexican rush8
239JuncaJuncus xiphioidesiris-leaved rush40
240LiliaCalochortus splendenssplendid mariposa lily 
241OrchiEpipactis giganteastream orchid50
242PoaceAristida adscensionissix-weeks three-awn99
243PoaceAristida purpurea var. nealleyiNealley three-awn5
244PoaceAvena barbata*slender wild oats99
245PoaceBouteloua aristidoides var. aristidoidesneedle grama99
246PoaceBouteloua barbata var. barbatasix-weeks grama11
247PoaceBromus carinatusCalifornia brome2
248PoaceBromus diandrus*ripgut brome80
249PoaceBromus madritensis ssp. rubens*red brome99
250PoaceBromus tectorum*downy brome35
251PoaceCynodon dactylon*Bermuda grass1
252PoaceFestuca bromoides*brome fescue50
253PoaceFestuca octoflorahairy six-weeks fescue40
254PoaceHilaria rigidabig galleta28
255PoaceMelica frutescenstall melica50
256PoaceMelica imperfectacoast-range melic5
257PoaceMuhlenbergia microspermalittleseed muhly40
258PoaceMuhlenbergia rigensdeergrass15
259PoacePennisetum setaceum*fountain grass80
260PoacePoa secunda ssp. juncifoliarush blue grass5
261PoacePolypogon monspeliensis*rabbits-foot grass60
262PoaceSchismus barbatus*Mediterranean schismus99
263PoaceStipa speciosadesert needlegrass1
264ThemiDichelostemma capitatum ssp. capitatumblue dicks3
265ThemiMuilla maritimamuilla15
266TyphaTypha domingensissouthern cattail30

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Copyright © 2010-2019 by Tom Chester (17), Mike Crouse (5), Vince Balch (3), Kay Madore (3), Wayne Armstrong (2), Paula Knoll (2), Adrienne Ballwey (1), Michael Charters (1), James Dillane (1), Jeff Field (1), Kate Harper (1), Frank Harris (1), Pam Pallette (1), Jim Roberts (1), Aaron Schusteff (1), Kate Shapiro (1) and Preston Taylor (1). The number in parentheses gives the number of survey days for the Hellhole Canyon area for each person, which does not include the Culp Valley portion of the California Riding and Hiking Trail.
Permission is freely granted to reproduce any or all of this page as long as credit is given to us at this source:
Comments and feedback: Tom Chester
Last update: 26 March 2019