Flora of Canebrake Area

Fig. 1. Top: View up Canebrake Canyon.
Middle row. Left: ocotillo and agave on canyon slopes. Right: Phacelia pedicellata, pedicellate phacelia.
Bottom row. Left: Cucurbita palmata, coyote melon. Right: Cylindropuntia fosbergii, pink teddy-bear cholla, Mason Valley cholla.
All photos by Birgit Knorr.
Click on the pictures (except the top one) for larger versions, or to go to the iNaturalist observation with more and larger pictures.



Most of Canebrake is private land, not part of Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, and as such, is not open to the public unless invited by, and accompanied by, a resident.

This checklist has been made from vouchers, iNat observations, and a list maintained by the first author, Birgit Knorr.

Vouchers were searched on 30 November 2018 at the Consortium of California Herbaria for vouchers with a locality of Canebrake, as well as georeferenced vouchers in the area of 32.89 to 32.92° N. latitude and -116.27 to -116.23° E. longitude. The localities were reviewed, and only vouchers that were clearly from the Canebrake area were kept. That left 331 vouchers of 164 taxa. There are probably only 163 taxa from vouchers, since the two Potamogeton species are from duplicate vouchers, which are probably, but not definitely, the same species.

The top collectors by far were Nancy Nenow and colleagues, with 146 vouchers and Joe Barth with 67 vouchers. The next most frequent collectors were F.R. Fosberg with 25 vouchers, and Frank Gander and P. Munz, each with 17 vouchers.

iNaturalist observations were searched in the same geographic area on 30 November 2018. Species with obscured coordinates were eliminated, since the uncertainty in their locations is too large to ensure they were observed in the Canebrake area. That left 2,754 observations of 91 species. The vast majority of those observations were part of the Cylindropuntia fosbergii mapping project of Birgit Knorr, a total of 2,322 observations, leaving 432 observations of the other species. Outside of the Cylindropuntia fosbergii observations, Birgit was the most frequent observer, with 310 observations, followed by Fred Melgert and Carla Hoegen with 79 observations, and Terry Hunefeld with 38 observations.

A new search of iNaturalist was made on 15 January 2019, which resulted in the addition of two species to the flora.

Birgit has maintained a checklist of species observed in the Canebrake area for some time. On 2 December 2018, Birgit Knorr, Nancy Accola, Tom Chester, Kate Harper, Allison Lee, and Don Rideout surveyed Canebrake Wash up to the closure gate about halfway up the canyon. On 11 January 2019, Birgit Knorr, Nancy Accola, Tom Chester, Walt Fidler, Kate Harper, Carla Hoegen, Terry Hunefeld, Fred Melgert, and Don Rideout surveyed the lower half mile of the canyon north of Canebrake Canyon, including a part of Canebrake Wash, while Fred Melgert continued surveying to the end of one branch of the upper canyon.

Checklist for Canebrake Area


An asterisk before the common name indicates a non-native species.

The column with header Famil is the first five letters of the Family Name.

The column with header BW links to the photo gallery page for each species at Fred Melgert and Carla Hoegen's BorregoWildflowers site.

The column with header #V gives the number of vouchers for each species, up to a maximum of 9.

The column with header iN gives the number of iNaturalist observations for each species, up to a maximum of 9.

The column with header #Pls gives the minimum number of plants observed in the 2 December 2018 survey, up to a maximum of 99 plants. Non-numeric entries in that column are as follows:

Version for printing, without lines and other text on this page: html (7 pages) or pdf Clickbook booklet (2 double-sided pages). (See printing instructions for an explanation of these options)

#FamilScientific Name
Link goes to the Jepson eflora
(*)Common Name
Link goes to Calphotos
1SelagSelaginella eremophiladesert spike-mossBW1  
2EquisEquisetum laevigatumsmooth scouring rushBW  5sp
3PteriCheilanthes parryiwoolly lipfernBW1 99
4EphedEphedra asperaMormon teaBW  2
5EphedEphedra californicadesert teaBW 1 
6AcantJusticia californicachuparosaBW6999
7AmaraAmaranthus fimbriatusfringed amaranthBW  X
8AmaraAmaranthus palmeriPalmer's amaranth   X
9ApiacBerula erectacutleaf water-parsnipBW1  
10ApocyAsclepias albicanswhite-stemmed milkweedBW11 
11ApocyAsclepias subulatarush milkweedBW1  
12ApocyFunastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegiiclimbing milkweedBW153
13ApocyFunastrum hirtellumrambling milkweedBW2499
14AsterAcamptopappus sphaerocephalus var. sphaerocephalusgoldenheadBW1  
15AsterAdenophyllum porophylloidesSan Felipe dogweedBW4 12
16AsterAmbrosia dumosaburroweedBW2899
17AsterAmbrosia salsola var. salsolacheesebushBW3999
18AsterBaccharis brachyphyllashort-leaved baccharisBW  16
19AsterBaccharis salicifolia ssp. salicifoliamule fatBW2 X
20AsterBahiopsis parishiiParish's goldeneyeBW2 26
21AsterBebbia juncea var. asperasweetbushBW2680
22AsterBrickellia atractyloides var. argutaCalifornia spear-leaved brickelliaBW1  
23AsterCentaurea benedicta*blessed thistleBW  X
24AsterChaenactis carphoclinia var. carphocliniapebble pincushionBW  25
25AsterChaenactis fremontiiFremont pincushionBW  1
26AsterChaenactis stevioidesdesert pincushionBW 215
27AsterDicoria canescensdesert dicoriaBW 2 
28AsterEncelia farinosabrittlebushBW3599
29AsterEncelia frutescensbutton enceliaBW13X
30AsterEricameria paniculatablackbanded rabbitbrushBW 910
31AsterEriophyllum wallaceiWallace's woolly daisyBW2  
32AsterEriophyllum wallacei var. rubellumWallace's woolly daisyBW1  
33AsterGeraea canescenshairy desert-sunflowerBW3 X
34AsterGnaphalium palustrewestern marsh cudweed 2  
35AsterIsocoma acradenia var. acradeniaentire-leaved alkali goldenbushBW 1 
36AsterIsocoma acradenia var. eremophilatoothed-leaved alkali goldenbushBW 440
37AsterLasthenia gracilisgoldfieldsBW1  
38AsterLogfia arizonicaArizona herba impiaBW  2
39AsterLogfia depressadwarf filagoBW1  
40AsterLogfia filaginoidesCalifornia filagoBW2 2
41AsterLogfia gallica*narrowleaf filagoBW  ~1
42AsterMalacothrix glabratadesert dandelionBW5 3
43AsterMonoptilon bellioidesdesert starBW1 1
44AsterPalafoxia arida var. aridaSpanish needleBW 21
45AsterPectis papposa var. papposachinch-weedBW 311
46AsterPerityle emoryiEmory's rock-daisyBW1799
47AsterPleurocoronis plurisetaarrow-leafBW 440
48AsterPluchea odorata var. odoratasalt marsh fleabane 1  
49AsterPluchea sericeaarrow-weedBW3399
50AsterPorophyllum gracileodoraBW  25
51AsterPsathyrotes ramosissimaturtlebackBW 3X
52AsterRafinesquia californicaCalifornia chicoryBW1  
53AsterRafinesquia neomexicanadesert chicoryBW1 2
54AsterSenecio flaccidus var. douglasiibush senecio 1 X
55AsterSenecio flaccidus var. monoensisMono ragwortBW3  
56AsterSenecio mohavensisMojave ragwortBW1 99
57AsterStephanomeria exigua ssp. exiguaslender wreathplantBW21X
58AsterStephanomeria pauciflorawire-lettuceBW1412
59AsterTrichoptilium incisumyellow-headBW2 2
60AsterTrixis californica var. californicaCalifornia trixisBW2235
61BignoChilopsis linearis ssp. arcuatadesert-willowBW681
62BoragAmsinckia intermediacommon fiddleneckBW1 2
63BoragAmsinckia retrorsasmall-flowered fiddleneckBW  X
64BoragCryptantha angustifolianarrow-leaved cryptanthaBW6499
65BoragCryptantha barbigera var. barbigerabearded cryptanthaBW2 1
66BoragCryptantha maritimaGuadalupe cryptanthaBW3 90
67BoragCryptantha micrantha var. micranthared-root cryptanthaBW1  
68BoragCryptantha pterocarya var. cyclopteraTucson wing-nut cryptanthaBW1  
69BoragEmmenanthe penduliflora var. penduliflorawhispering bellsBW1127
70BoragEriodictyon trichocalyx var. lanatumsmoothleaf yerba santaBW12X
71BoragEucrypta chrysanthemifolia var. bipinnatifidaeucryptaBW  X
72BoragEucrypta micranthadesert eucryptaBW  75
73BoragHeliotropium curassavicum var. oculatumseaside heliotropeBW1 X
74BoragNama demissa var. demissapurple matBW1  
75BoragPectocarya heterocarpachuckwalla pectocaryaBW2  
76BoragPectocarya recurvatacurvenut combseedBW2 1
77BoragPhacelia campanularia ssp. campanulariadesert bluebellsBW  X
78BoragPhacelia crenulata var. ambiguaheliotrope phaceliaBW  X
79BoragPhacelia crenulata var. minutifloralittle-flowered heliotrope phaceliaBW2 X
80BoragPhacelia cryptanthalimestone phaceliaBW1  
81BoragPhacelia distanscommon phaceliaBW3599
82BoragPhacelia pedicellatapedicellate phaceliaBW1117
83BoragPholisma arenariumsand plantBW31X
84BoragPholistoma membranaceumwhite fiesta flowerBW1 2
85BoragTiquilia plicataplicate coldeniaBW13X
86BrassBrassica tournefortii*Sahara mustardBW  X
87BrassCaulanthus cooperiCooper's jewel-flowerBW  3
88BrassCaulanthus lasiophyllusCalifornia mustardBW1 99
89BrassDithyrea californicaspectacle-podBW1 X
90BrassDraba cuneifoliawedge-leaved drabaBW  5
91BrassLepidium lasiocarpum ssp. lasiocarpumhairy-podded pepper-grassBW3175
92BrassLyrocarpa coulteriCoulter's lyrepodBW1 35
93BrassSisymbrium irio*London rocketBW1 10
94BurseBursera microphyllaelephant treeBW1 X
95CactaCylindropuntia bigeloviiteddy-bear chollaBW5999
96CactaCylindropuntia echinocarpasilver chollaBW11 
97CactaCylindropuntia fosbergiipink teddy-bear chollaBW993
98CactaCylindropuntia ganderiGander's chollaBW3999
99CactaCylindropuntia ramosissimapencil chollaBW 1X
100CactaCylindropuntia wolfiiWolf's chollaBW  P
101CactaEchinocereus engelmanniiEngelmann's hedgehog cactusBW279
102CactaFerocactus cylindraceusCalifornia barrel cactusBW3999
103CactaMammillaria dioicaCalifornia fish-hook cactusBW 24
104CactaMammillaria tetrancistradesert fish-hook cactusBW  2
105CactaOpuntia basilaris var. basilarisbeavertail cactusBW146
106CampaNemacladus glanduliferusglandular nemacladusBW1 1
107CaryoAchyronychia cooperifrost matBW2 5
108ChenoAtriplex polycarpacattle saltbushBW 999
109ChenoChenopodium murale*nettle-leaved goosefootBW 12
110ChenoDysphania ambrosioides*Mexican tea   X
111ConvoCuscuta californicaCalifornia dodderBW  X
112ConvoCuscuta denticulatadesert dodderBW1  
113ConvoCuscuta subinclusacanyon dodderBW3  
114CrassDudleya arizonicaArizona chalk dudleyaBW2  
115CucurCucurbita palmatacoyote melonBW142
116EuphoAcalypha californicaCalifornia copperleafBW4710
117EuphoChamaesyce micromeraSonoran spurgeBW  1
118EuphoChamaesyce polycarpasmall-seeded spurgeBW9699
119EuphoChamaesyce setilobastarfish (Yuma) spurgeBW 115
120EuphoCroton californicusCalifornia crotonBW 1 
121EuphoDitaxis lanceolatanarrowleaf ditaxisBW3599
122EuphoDitaxis neomexicanaNew Mexico ditaxisBW33X
123EuphoEuphorbia erianthabeetle spurgeBW  1?
124EuphoStillingia linearifolialinear-leaved stillingiaBW222
125FabacAcmispon argophyllus var. argophyllussouthern California silver-lotusBW1  
126FabacAcmispon glaber var. brevialatusshort-winged deerweedBW2  
127FabacAcmispon haydoniipygmy lotusBW1  
128FabacAcmispon maritimus var. brevivexillusshort-bannered coastal lotusBW 25
129FabacAcmispon rigidusdesert lotusBW4 14
130FabacAcmispon strigosusstrigose lotusBW3299
131FabacAstragalus nuttallianus var. cedrosensisCedros milk-vetchBW  5
132FabacAstragalus palmeriPalmer's milk-vetchBW2  
133FabacDalea mollissimadowny daleaBW  X
134FabacLupinus arizonicusArizona lupineBW2499
135FabacLupinus concinnusbajada lupineBW1  
136FabacLupinus sparsiflorusCoulter's lupineBW1  
137FabacOlneya tesotaironwoodBW 94
138FabacParkinsonia aculeata*Mexican palo verdeBW  P
139FabacParkinsonia floridablue palo verdeBW15X
140FabacParkinsonia microphyllayellow palo verde   P
141FabacProsopis glandulosa var. torreyanahoney mesquiteBW1325
142FabacProsopis pubescensscrew-bean mesquiteBW2  
143FabacPsorothamnus emoryiEmory's indigo-bushBW13X
144FabacPsorothamnus schottiiindigo bushBW6745
145FabacPsorothamnus spinosussmoke treeBW2715
146FabacSenegalia greggiicatclawBW1999
147FabacSenna armataspiny sennaBW976
148FouquFouquieria splendens ssp. splendensocotilloBW3999
149GeranErodium cicutarium*redstem filareeBW1 26
150GeranErodium texanumTexas filareeBW  2
151KrameKrameria bicolorwhite rhatanyBW4310
152LamiaHyptis emoryidesert-lavenderBW4999
153LamiaSalvia apianawhite sageBW1  
154LamiaSalvia columbariaechiaBW1 5
155LoasaMentzelia affinisyellow blazing starBW2 X
156LoasaMentzelia albicauliswhite-stemmed blazing starBW  X
157LoasaMentzelia hirsutissimahairy stickleafBW3 X
158LoasaMentzelia involucratabracted blazing starBW  15
159LoasaPetalonyx thurberi ssp. thurberiThurber's sandpaper-plantBW195
160MalvaEremalche rotundifoliadesert five-spotBW  3
161MalvaHibiscus denudatusrock hibiscusBW1130
162MalvaHorsfordia newberryiNewberry's velvet mallowBW  1
163MalvaSphaeralcea ambigua var. ambiguaapricot mallowBW  X
164MartyProboscidea althaeifoliadesert unicorn-plantBW  7
165NyctaAbronia villosa var. villosahairy sand-verbenaBW 1X
166NyctaAllionia incarnata var. incarnatasmall-flowered trailing four o'clockBW  2
167NyctaAllionia incarnata var. villosalarge-flowered trailing four o'clockBW1  
168NyctaBoerhavia triquetra var. intermediafivewing spiderlingBW 111
169NyctaBoerhavia wrightiiWright's spiderlingBW 13
170NyctaMirabilis laevis var. retrorsaBigelow's desert four-o'clockBW2499
171NyctaMirabilis laevis var. villosaBigelow's desert four-o'clockBW1  
172NyctaMirabilis tenuilobaslender-lobed four o'clockBW  1
173OleacMenodora scabra var. glabrescensbroom twinberryBW1  
174OnagrCamissoniopsis pallida ssp. pallidapale suncupBW2 X
175OnagrChylismia cardiophylla ssp. cardiophyllaheartleaf suncupBW1 5
176OnagrChylismia claviformis ssp. peirsoniibrown-eyed primroseBW  75
177OnagrEremothera boothii ssp. condensataBooth's evening primroseBW2 15
178OnagrEremothera refractanarrow-leaf suncupBW3199
179OnagrEulobus californicusCalifornia suncupBW3299
180OrobaOrobanche cooperiCooper's broomrapeBW  X
181PapavEschscholzia minutiflora ssp. minutiflorasmall-flowered poppyBW3 2
182PapavEschscholzia parishiiParish's poppyBW3 30
183PhrymMimulus bigelovii var. bigeloviiBigelow's monkeyflowerBW1 25
184PlantAntirrhinum filipesdesert twining snapdragonBW1181
185PlantKeckiella antirrhinoides var. microphyllalittle-leaved chaparral beardtongueBW1  
186PlantMohavea confertifloraghost flowerBW1 99
187PlantPenstemon clevelandii var. clevelandiiCleveland's beardtongueBW1  
188PlantPenstemon spectabilis var. spectabilisshowy penstemonBW1  
189PlantPlantago ovatadesert plantainBW  30
190PolemAliciella latifolia ssp. latifoliabroad-leaf giliaBW  13
191PolemGilia stellatastar giliaBW1140
192PolygChorizanthe brevicornu var. brevicornubrittle spineflowerBW2117
193PolygEriogonum fasciculatum var. polifoliumCalifornia buckwheatBW2  
194PolygEriogonum inflatumdesert trumpetBW3460
195PolygEriogonum maculatumspotted buckwheatBW1  
196PolygEriogonum reniformekidney-leaf buckwheatBW2 X
197PolygEriogonum thomasiiThomas' buckwheatBW1 33
198PolygEriogonum wrightii var. nodosumWright's buckwheatBW1 10
199PolygPterostegia drymarioidesthreadstemBW  20
200RanunDelphinium parishii ssp. subglobosumintermediate larkspurBW2 12
201RubiaGalium stellatumstar-flowered bedstrawBW4 3
202SalicSalix gooddingiiblack willowBW22X
203SalicSalix laevigatared willowBW4  
204SimmoSimmondsia chinensisjojobaBW34X
205SolanDatura discolordesert thornappleBW1 10
206SolanDatura wrightiisacred daturaBW1 X
207SolanLycium fremontiiFremont's boxthornBW2 4
208SolanLycium parishiiParish's boxthornBW  2
209SolanNicotiana attenuatacoyote tobacco 1  
210SolanNicotiana obtusifoliadesert tobaccoBW1710
211SolanPhysalis crassifoliathick-leaved ground cherryBW2630
212TamarTamarix aphylla*athelBW 2X
213TamarTamarix ramosissima*saltcedarBW1940
214UrticParietaria hespera var. hesperapellitoryBW  99
215ViscaPhoradendron californicumdesert mistletoeBW2550
216ZygopFagonia laevisCalifornia fagoniaBW1610
217ZygopFagonia pachyacanthasticky fagoniaBW  1
218ZygopLarrea tridentatacreosote bushBW3930
219AgavaAgave deserti var. desertidesert agaveBW1 99
220AgavaHesperocallis undulatadesert lilyBW 2X
221ArecaWashingtonia filiferaCalifornia fan palmBW  2
222ArecaWashingtonia robusta*Mexican Fan Palm   P
223CyperCyperus laevigatussmooth flatsedge 1  
224CyperSchoenoplectus americanusAmerican tuleBW1 X
225JuncaJuncus bufoniustoad rushBW1  
226JuncaJuncus xiphioidesiris-leaved rushBW1  
227PoaceAristida adscensionissix-weeks three-awnBW  5
228PoaceAristida purpureapurple three-awnBW 1 
229PoaceBouteloua aristidoides var. aristidoidesneedle gramaBW  9
230PoaceBromus madritensis ssp. rubens*red bromeBW1 X
231PoaceCynodon dactylon*Bermuda grassBW1199
232PoaceHilaria rigidabig galletaBW327
233PoaceHordeum murinum*foxtail barleyBW1  
234PoacePhragmites australiscommon reedBW1299
235PoacePolypogon monspeliensis*rabbits-foot grassBW1  
236PoaceSchismus barbatus*Mediterranean schismusBW2 25
237PoaceSorghum bicolor*sorghumBW 25
238PotamPotamogeton foliosus ssp. foliosusleafy pondweed 1  
239PotamPotamogeton pusillussmall pondweed 1  

Voucher data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria (ucjeps.berkeley.edu/consortium/)

We thank Allison Lee for her help with the 2 December 2018 survey.

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Copyright © 2018-2019 by Birgit Knorr, Tom Chester, Nancy Accola, Kate Harper, Don Rideout, Fred Melgert, Carla Hoegen, Walt Fidler, and Terry Hunefeld
Permission is freely granted to reproduce any or all of this page as long as credit is given to us at this source:
Comments and feedback: Tom Chester
Last update: 15 January 2019