Flora of Fuller Ridge Area, San Jacinto Mountains

Fig. 1. A Google Earth view of the Fuller Ridge Floral Area looking south. Top: Area locator showing the northern part of the San Jacinto Mountains, with the detail area outlined in red. Bottom: The detail area. The Fuller Ridge Flora Area is outlined with a thin blue line. The Black Mountain dirt road is outlined in a thicker blue line. The Floral Area boundary on the north, west and east side is where the area essentially becomes inaccessible due to steep slopes. Click on the pictures for larger versions.

Procedure For Compiling The Checklist
Important Caveats
Notes on Some Taxa
Voucher Taxa Rejected From The Checklist


This is a flora for the Fuller Ridge Area of San Jacinto Mountain, defined by the border shown in Figs. 1 and 2.

Fig. 2. A topographic-map view of the Fuller Ridge Floral Area, outlined in light blue. Click on the map for a larger version.

The defining topographic features of this area are Fuller Ridge, the Black Mountain Ridge northeast of Black Mountain, and the flattish terrain to the north of the Black Mountain Ridge, which is an older terrain not yet removed by the erosion creating the very steep north face of San Jacinto Mountain. The area thus includes a ridgeline flora and a flora of the mostly-steep slopes draining to the north on the northern side of San Jacinto Mountain.

The southern boundary of the floral area is just below Fuller Ridge and Black Mountain Road. The western boundary is at the western ridge above the California Riding and Hiking Trail and Dutch Creek, beginning a bit north of the 7772 foot Black Mountain Peak. The northern and eastern boundary is north of Fuller Ridge where the slope becomes too steep to explore.

The elevation range of this area is from roughly 6200 feet just east of Camp Lackey to 8700 feet at the eastern end of Fuller Ridge, where the Fuller Ridge Trail turns south and leaves the Ridge toward the Deer Springs Trail. Most of the surveyed area is at 6600 to 8700 feet.

Procedure For Compiling The Checklist

The Checklist was compiled by Tom from online vouchers and from field work done by the authors from six different areas.

Vouchers were obtained using the following searches of the Consortium of California Herbaria on 4 August 2011:

Duplicate vouchers were removed, and each voucher was examined to see if it was inside the target area. For example, nearly all of the Snow Creek vouchers were taken at much lower elevation; a simple sort on elevation identified most of those.

The species list from the vouchers was then culled to remove species names that probably do not exist in this area, either because the location was not precise enough to be sure that the voucher was taken from the targeted area, or because the species determination on the voucher was unlikely to be correct. The rejected vouchers are detailed below.

The above procedure resulted in a list of 60 taxa from vouchers.

Fieldwork has been done in six separate areas:

Fig. 3 shows the areas surveyed on 7, 12 and 29 August 2011.

PCT / Road Loop, 7 August 2011 Snow Creek West Fork westernmost drainage, 12 August 2011 Snow Creek West Fork second most westernmost drainage, 29 August 2011
Fig. 3. Areas surveyed in the PCT / Snow Creek area on 7, 12 and 29 August 2011. Click on the maps for larger versions.

On 17 June 2018 the entire list was reviewed critically. Some species tentatively determined in the field were tossed as being likely misdeterminations (some discussed in the Notes on Some Taxa), and some species only in the voucher list were tossed because it was not clear that they were taken from this area (see Taxa Rejected From The Checklist).

The total checklist below contains 163 taxa as of 18 June 2018.

Important Caveats

Checklist for Fuller Ridge Area

The following gives basic information about this checklist.


An asterisk before the common name indicates a non-native species. Note that it is debated whether Poa pratensis is native or non-native to the mountains of southern California.

To save space, a five letter abbreviation is used for the Family.

The column with header #Pls gives the total number of plants of each species seen in the sum of all the surveys in this floral area, up to a maximum of 99 plants. The main intent of this column is to note which species are fairly rare in this area. If a species is vouchered from this area, but we have not seen it, the column contains a V.

See also the extensive Notes on Some Taxa given below, as well as the list of rejected species.

There is also a version of this checklist which gives separate abundances for the major surveyed areas.

Version for printing, without lines and other text on this page: html (4 pages) or pdf Clickbook booklet (2 double-sided pages). (See printing instructions for an explanation of these options)

#FamilScientific Name
Link goes to Jepson eFlora
(*)Common Name
Link goes to Calphotos
1DennsPteridium aquilinum var. pubescensbracken99
2WoodsAthyrium filix-femina var. cyclosorumsubarctic lady-fern12
3WoodsCystopteris fragilisbrittle bladder fern9
4CupreCalocedrus decurrensincense-cedar99
5PinacAbies concolorwhite fir99
6PinacPinus contorta ssp. murrayanalodgepole pine5
7PinacPinus flexilislimber pine23
8PinacPinus jeffreyiJeffrey pine99
9PinacPinus lambertianasugar pine99
10AdoxaSambucus nigra ssp. caeruleablue elderberry3
11ApiacAngelica tomentosawoolly angelica1
12AsterAntennaria rosearosy everlasting, pussytoes15
13AsterArtemisia dracunculuswild tarragon99
14AsterArtemisia ludoviciana ssp. incomptamountain mugwort31
15AsterCirsium vulgare*bull thistle10
16AsterCorethrogyne filaginifoliaCalifornia-aster65
17AsterEricameria cuneata var. cuneatarock goldenbush4
18AsterEricameria nauseosa var. bernardinaSan Bernardino rubber rabbitbrush99
19AsterErigeron foliosus var. foliosusleafy daisy20
20AsterGnaphalium palustrewestern marsh cudweed99
21AsterHieracium horridumprickly hawkweed5
22AsterHulsea heterochromared-rayed hulsea99
23AsterHulsea vestita ssp. callicarphabeautiful hulsea76
24AsterPseudognaphalium californicumCalifornia everlasting72
25AsterPseudognaphalium thermaleslender everlasting99
26AsterSenecio triangularisarrowhead butterweedV
27AsterSolidago velutina ssp. californicagoldenrod99
28AsterSonchus oleraceus*sow thistle10
29AsterStephanomeria virgatatwiggy wreath plant25
30BoragCryptantha micrantha var. lepidamountain red-root cryptantha99
31BoragPhacelia mutabilischangeable phacelia99
32BrassErysimum capitatum var. capitatumwestern wallflower99
33BrassStreptanthus bernardinusLaguna Mtns. jewel-flower31
34CampaHeterocodon rariflorumfew-flowered heterocodon99
35CapriSymphoricarpos rotundifolius var. parishiiParish's snowberry2
36CaryoSagina saginoidespearlwort80
37CaryoSilene parishiiParish's campion39
38CaryoSilene verecundawhite catch-fly99
39CelasEuonymus occidentalis var. parishiiParish's burning bush99
40ChenoChenopodium atrovirensforest goosefoot99
41ChenoChenopodium fremontiiFremont's goosefoot99
42EricaArctostaphylos patulagreen-leaf manzanita99
43EricaArctostaphylos patula X A. pringlei ssp. drupaceahybrid manzanita1
44EricaArctostaphylos pringlei ssp. drupaceapink-bracted manzanita99
45EricaChimaphila menziesiilittle prince's pine52
46EricaPterospora andromedeapinedrops47
47EricaPyrola aphyllaleafless wintergreen1
48EricaPyrola dentatatoothed wintergreen5
49EricaPyrola pictawhite-veined wintergreen35
50EricaRhododendron occidentalewestern azalea99
51EricaSarcodes sanguineasnow-plant25
52FabacAcmispon nevadensis var. nevadensisSierra Nevada lotus99
53FabacAstragalus douglasii var. parishiiParish' Jacumba milk-vetch10
54FabacLupinus excubitus var. austromontanusmountain grape-soda lupine99
55FabacLupinus hyacinthinusSan Jacinto lupine99
56FabacLupinus latifolius var. parishiiParish's lupine99
57FabacTrifolium monanthum ssp. grantianummountain carpet clover28
58FabacTrifolium variegatumvariegated clover13
59FagacChrysolepis sempervirensbush chinquapin99
60FagacQuercus chrysolepiscanyon live oak99
61GarryGarrya fremontiiFremont silk tassel6
62GrossRibes cereum var. cereumwax currant99
63GrossRibes malvaceum var. viridifoliumchaparral currant2
64GrossRibes nevadensemountain pink currant99
65GrossRibes roezlii var. roezliiSierra gooseberry99
66HydraPhiladelphus microphylluslittle-leaf mock orange5
67HyperHypericum anagalloidestinker's penny50
68LamiaMonardella australis ssp. australissouthern mountain-monardella30
69LamiaMonardella nanashort-flowered monardella99
70LamiaStachys rigidarigid hedge-nettle99
71MontiCalyptridium monospermumpussy paws60
72OnagrEpilobium canum ssp. latifoliummountain California-fuchsia99
73OnagrEpilobium ciliatum ssp. ciliatumwillowherb99
74OnagrEpilobium ciliatum ssp. glandulosumglandular willowherbV
75OnagrEpilobium glaberrimum ssp. glaberrimumglaucus willowherb99
76OnagrGayophytum diffusum ssp. parviflorumgroundsmoke10
77OnagrGayophytum oligospermumpinegrove groundsmoke99
78OrobaCastilleja applegatei ssp. martiniiMartin's paintbrush5
79OrobaCastilleja miniata ssp. miniatagiant red paintbrush99
80OrobaCastilleja minor ssp. spiralislesser paintbrush2
81OrobaCordylanthus neviniiNevin's bird's beak99
82OrobaKopsiopsis strobilaceaCalifornia groundcone10
83OrobaPedicularis semibarbatapine lousewort99
84PapavArgemone munitaprickly poppy1
85PhrymMimulus breweriBrewer's monkeyflower99
86PhrymMimulus floribundusfloriferous monkeyflower99
87PhrymMimulus moschatusmusk monkeyflower99
88PhrymMimulus pilosusfalse monkeyflower99
89PhrymMimulus tilingiilarger mountain monkeyflower22
90PlantKeckiella rothrockii var. jacintensisSan Jacinto Mts. keckiella99
91PlantPenstemon grinnellii var. grinnelliiGrinnell's beardtongue99
92PlantPenstemon labrosusSan Gabriel beardtongue30
93PlantPenstemon rostriflorusbeaked penstemon99
94PolemAllophyllum divaricatumpurple false-gilia31
95PolemEriastrum densifolium ssp. austromontanumsouthern mountain woolly-star99
96PolemGilia brecciarum ssp. brecciarumNevada gilia99
97PolemLinanthus pungensgranite prickly phlox24
98PolemSaltugilia splendens ssp. splendenssplendid gilia99
99PolygEriogonum apiculatumSan Jacinto buckwheat99
100PolygEriogonum cithariformeCithara buckwheat99
101PolygEriogonum nudum var. pauciflorumnaked buckwheat99
102PolygEriogonum parishiiParish's buckwheat99
103PolygEriogonum umbellatum var. munziisulphur buckwheat99
104PolygEriogonum wrightii var. subscaposumWright's buckwheat99
105PolygRumex salicifoliuswillow-leaved dock3
106RanunAquilegia formosawestern columbine33
107RhamnCeanothus cordulatusmountain whitethorn99
108RosacCercocarpus ledifoliuscurl-leaf mountain-mahogany1
109RosacDrymocallis glandulosa var. viscidasticky cinquefoil99
110RosacHolodiscus discolor var. microphyllusmountain spray2
111RosacHorkelia clevelandii var. clevelandiiCleveland's horkelia99
112RosacPotentilla rimicolacliff cinquefoilV
113RosacRubus parviflorusthimbleberry99
114RubiaGalium angustifolium ssp. jacinticumSan Jacinto Mtns. bedstraw99
115RubiaGalium parishiiParish's bedstraw20
116SalicSalix luteayellow willow15
117SalicSalix scoulerianaScouler's willow47
118SapinAcer glabrum var. diffusummountain maple1
119SaxifHeuchera hirsutissimashaggy-haired alumroot7
120SolanNicotiana attenuatacoyote tobacco99
121UrticUrtica dioica ssp. holosericeastinging nettle10
122ViolaViola macloskeyismall white violet99
123ViolaViola pinetorum ssp. pinetorumpine violet7
124ViscaArceuthobium campylopodumpine dwarf-mistletoe63
125ViscaPhoradendron bolleanumfir mistletoe99
126ViscaPhoradendron juniperinumincense-cedar mistletoe99
127CyperCarex fractafragile sheath sedge99
128CyperCarex heteroneuravari-nerved sedge2
129CyperCarex multicaulisforest sedge1
130CyperCarex praegracilisclustered field sedgeV
131CyperCarex rossiiRoss' sedge10
132CyperCarex sartwellianaYosemite sedgeV
133CyperCarex sentaswamp sedge20?
134JuncaJuncus bufonius var. occidentaliswestern toad rush1
135JuncaJuncus duraniiDuran's rush6
136JuncaJuncus longistylislong-styled rush99
137JuncaJuncus macrandruslong-anthered rush8
138JuncaJuncus rugulosuswrinkled rush99
139JuncaLuzula comosahairy wood rush3
140LiliaCalochortus invenustusplain mariposa lily20
141LiliaLilium parryilemon lily99
142OrchiCorallorhiza maculataspotted coralroot12
143OrchiListera convallarioidesbroad-lipped twaybladeV
144OrchiPlatanthera dilatata var. leucostachyswhite bog orchid5
145PoaceAgrostis exarataspike bentgrass34
146PoaceAgrostis idahoensisIdaho bentgrass99
147PoaceAgrostis scabrarough bentgrass99
148PoaceBromus carinatus var. carinatusCalifornia brome20
149PoaceBromus ciliatusfringed brome1?
150PoaceBromus halliiHall's bromeV
151PoaceBromus tectorum*downy brome99
152PoaceDeschampsia elongataslender hairgrass99
153PoaceElymus elymoidessquirreltail99
154PoaceElymus glaucus ssp. glaucusJepson's blue wildrye15
155PoaceElymus hispidus*intermediate wheatgrass99
156PoaceGlyceria elatatall mannagrass52
157PoaceMuhlenbergia richardsonismat muhly20
158PoaceMuhlenbergia rigensdeergrass40
159PoacePoa fendleriana ssp. longiligulaFendler's blue grass10
160PoacePoa pratensis*Kentucky blue grass20
161PoaceStipa occidentaliswestern needlegrass99
162PoaceStipa occidentalis var. californicaCalifornia needlegrassV
163PoaceStipa occidentalis var. pubescensElmer's needlegrassV

Notes on Some Taxa

Fire followers that may no longer be present: Allophyllum divaricatum, Eriogonum cithariforme, Eriogonum parishii, Hulsea heterochroma, Hulsea vestita ssp. callicarpha, Nicotiana attenuata, Ribes malvaceum var. viridifolium, and Stephanomeria virgata. We saw these species in our 2011 survey of Camp Lackey, four years after the 22 August 2007 fire in this area.

Non-native species. It is very unusual to find non-native species in the higher elevations of San Jacinto Mountain away from roads. This area is different since in addition to a driveable road to this area, there are a number of campgrounds nearby, and a former Boy Scout Camp (Camp Lackey) that had a number of buildings and a swimming pool. The most notable of the unusual non-native introduced species are Cirsium vulgare and Sonchus oleraceus, weeds more typical of lower-elevation areas. The other non-native weeds are Bromus tectorum, which is scarce at similar elevations elsewhere at San Jacinto Mountain but abundant here; Elymus hispidus, which was introduced by the Forest Service in the early 1900s in many wet areas; and Poa pratensis, which may or may not be native to California, and may also have been introduced by the Forest Service.

The rest of the notes are given in alphabetical order by Scientific Name.

Bromus carinatus var. carinatus, Bromus ciliatus, Bromus hallii. These species look very similar most of the year, and we haven't examined specimens from the right time of year to get the determination accurately in some areas.

Carex sartwelliana, Carex senta. Our observations that we called Carex senta may actually be of Carex sartwelliana, since we failed to distinguish between those two species at the time of observation.

Ceanothus cordulatus. It was tempting to call some of these plants C. leucodermis when they were resprouting after the fire, but that determination was unlikely.

Ericameria nauseosa var. bernardina. The plants here are unusually leafy, with uppermost cauline leaves that were narrow enough to be var. oreophila. But the lower leaves were too wide for that determination.

Epilobium ciliatum ssp. ciliatum, ssp. glandulosum. It is difficult to distinguish ssp. glandulosum from ssp. ciliatum without observing turions. Turions are only present during part of the year, and one usually has to dig around the plant to expose them. We've never seen turions on the plants we have examined here, but we haven't always checked. The voucher of ssp. glandulosum is a Hall voucher that was clearly taken from one of the springs north of Fuller Ridge, from his other collections on the same date.

Gayophytum diffusum ssp. parviflorum, Gayophytum oligospermum. These two species can only be reliably distinguished when there are fruit mature enough to count the seeds, except if the plant has spreading hairs, which can then only be Gayophytum diffusum. Hence young plants without spreading hairs are indeterminate, and we simply assign those to Gayophytum oligospermum, our most common species, which may or may not be correct.

Gilia brecciarum ssp. brecciarum. This is a new species for San Jacinto Mountain. At the time we observed it here, the plants were past their prime and so all we knew is that it wasn't one of the usual species at SnJt. Fortunately, in 2018 Tom found this species on the Desert Divide, and then was able to easily see that the plants here were the same determination.

Listera convallarioides. See discussion under Senecio triangularis.

Potentilla rimicola. The voucher is from "Fuller Ridge on Pacific Crest Trail, Castle Rocks area" from 14 September 2004, with "34 individuals found in 1 hectare after 1 hour search." We have been mystified and very disappointed that we have not been able to relocate it here, since we have relocated all other voucher locations of this species and found additional locations as well. We have specifically looked for it here on four separate trips, striking out each time.

Senecio triangularis. We have not found this vouchered species in our surveys in this area, but it is possible we have not yet surveyed where it lives. The following gives all the information we know about this voucher and this species in this area.

Hall, in his 1901 flora, says "...it occurs only along the creeks that flow down the north side, and again in the hillside bogs near Deer Springs. These stations have an altitude of 7500-9000 feet". We have seen it not only near Deer Springs Campground, but have also discovered it in five other locations at San Jacinto Mountain.

Hall collected Listera convallarioides as his voucher #2534, with his next voucher number being two collections of Senecio triangularis. The locality of the first was "along tributary of Snow Creek (n side of mountains); 7500 feet", and the second was "Branch of Snow Creek; 8200 feet" in one voucher, and "streams of n side mountains; 8200 feet" in the duplicate voucher.

The dates on all his vouchers from this trip are only given to the month of July 1901.

Hall's field notes for these vouchers are prefaced with "Fuller's Mill Mtns, July 23,24. His notes for #2534 say "Canon on N. side of east end of Fuller's Range. His notes for #2535 say only "8200 ft". His notes for #2535 say "Meadow camp along skid road to Snow Creek".

So it seems pretty clear that these vouchers were collected on the north side of Fuller Ridge. Both the Listera and the Senecio may have been collected in the East Branch of the West Fork of Snow Creek, north of where the Fuller Ridge Trail turns south and leaves the ridge. We have not explored that area. This location fits with the observation of S. triangularis 1.3 miles to the east, in a wet area in the East Fork of Snow Creek at 7200 feet elevation, from hikers taking that route to San Jacinto Peak (photo showing that no longer online, and apparently not archived at the Wayback Machine).

However, the next voucher, #2535, was probably collected in the Camp Lackey area, so it is possible the Senecio was collected in Snow Creek in the Camp Lackey area. However, we did not find any S. triangularis in our exploration of the wet areas there, and this species is pretty hard to miss since its stems are two to three feet tall and persistent for at least a year.

Stipa occidentalis. This area is the type locality for Stipa occidentalis var. californica (as Stipa californicum, collected by Hall in 1901 from "North side. Fullers Ridge San Jacinto Mountains, 7000 feet" (the original locality on the voucher was "w fork Snow Creek" and "Alt.5000 ft", which was crossed out and replaced).

Interestingly, B. Lennart Johnson revisited the type locality in 1960 and 1961, and found both ssp. californicum and ssp. pubescens growing together there, which accounts for the five vouchers of each subspecies in the flora. This may call into question whether these subspecies are actually distinct. We have just called the plants by the species name, and not tried to divine the subspecies.

Trifolium monanthum ssp. grantianum, Trifolium variegatum. Trifolium monanthum ssp. grantianum is our most common Trifolium species in the SnJt high country by far. But when Tom saw these plants in the Snow Creek westernmost drainage in flower, he immediately called them Trifolium variegatum, since their flowers were quite pink, looking very different from the mostly-white flowers of Trifolium monanthum, and the plants appear annual, not forming mats.

However, in looking at his pictures at home, it became less clear about how to determine those plants. Both Trifolium monanthum and Trifolium variegatum var. geminiflorum have just one to five flowers per cluster, and are very much alike in a number of respects, especially for depauperate plants. In addition, the Jepson Manual flora notes that the key difference between the two species disappears when Trifolium variegatum var. geminiflorum has a reduced involucre. Fortunately, Randall Morgan, an expert with 18 years of experience with Trifolium, reviewed one of Keir Morse's Calphotos pix and added this comment: "Unlike T monanthum in Brightly colored fl.-tube, United invol. bracts, annual habit etc." Since our plants have a very brightly-colored flower tube, this restored Tom's confidence in the determination of T. variegatum for one set of plants.

But there is an additional kicker. The expert also said "Note that this var. is only Sierran; distrib. in TJM is wrong". So either the Jepson Manual is correct in placing this variety at San Jacinto, or our plants at Snow Creek are just part of the variability of T. variegatum that does not fit into a defined variety. The Jepson Manual treatment says "Most variable of California clovers; +- 30 entities named but intergrading without clear delimitations; most conspicuous California entities treated as varieties below; keel shape seems taxonomically insignificant; molecular research needed." Hence we just give the species in our checklist.

Our plants in Snow Creek have the corolla color of Keir's plants, but the involucre is much reduced.

Voucher Taxa Rejected From The Checklist

Probable misdeterminations

Gnaphalium canescens ssp. beneolens, UCR18844. Subspecies beneolens is a chaparral species, found at lower elevation than this area. Subspecies thermale is the pine belt species. These two taxa are very similar, so it is possible that the voucher is misdetermined. More likely, though, is that this voucher is from outside the target area here. The locality for this voucher is just Black Mountain, and it might have been taken along SR243 west of this area at much lower elevation, which fits the dry roadside given in the voucher label.

Juncus macrophyllus, UCR24963 and UC2571. The vouchers are almost surely J. longistylis. These two species are very similar, and experts have annotated some San Jacinto Mountain vouchers differently at different times. The current concept of these two species assigns all the San Jacinto Mountain plants to J. longistylis (the second edition Jepson Manual specifically states exc SnJt for J. macrophyllus).

Chenopodium desiccatum, RSA597521; Lupinus andersonii, RSA595733; Phacelia hastata ssp. hastata, UCR98837; and Phacelia imbricata, RSA595740. All of these vouchers were taken by L. C. Wheeler, and these are all almost surely misdeterminations of the common San Jacinto Mountains species in this area: Chenopodium atrovirens, Lupinus hyacinthinus and Phacelia mutabilis. In fact, the two Phacelia vouchers that have different determinations are duplicates!

The voucher of Chenopodium desiccatum is apparently no longer online as of 19 June 2018, but there are two dupes of that voucher now online, one determined as just Chenopodium and one determined as C. hians.

Vouchers probably not from this Floral Area

The vouchers of the following species are probably from the Black Mountain area: Arctostaphylos glandulosa, Carex athrostachya, Lupinus concinnus, and Viola purpurea.

Although their voucher locality is "Black Mountain Campground", it seems more likely that the name of the campground is now the Boulder Basin Campground very close to the summit of Black Mountain. The name of the campground just south of Fuller Ridge is the Black Mountain Group Campground.

The vouchers of the following species are probably from the east branch of Snow Creek north of the Folly Peak - San Jacinto Peak - Miller Mountain ridge, which is to the east of Fuller Ridge: Erigeron breweri var. jacinteus, Polypodium hesperium, and Polystichum scopulinum. These species are all known to occur in the Tamarack / Round Valley / Long Valley area in that vicinity.

The vouchers of the following species are probably from the springs near the Fuller Ridge Trail near its upper end, south of Fuller Ridge itself: Agrostis humilis.

A voucher of Juncus oxymeris was taken by Hall in 1901, "from n side tributary of Snow Creek, 5800 feet". Although Hall changed his elevation estimate for Stipa californicum, it seems unlikely this voucher was taken from our floral area since this is a mid-elevation species at San Jacinto, with all vouchers except one below 5600 feet. Also, Hall does not cite this voucher as being in his Pine Belt Flora.

Voucher data provided by the participants of the Consortium of California Herbaria (ucjeps.berkeley.edu/consortium/) on 4 August 2011. Vouchers were also checked on 17 June 2018 to see if any new species had been vouchered; no new vouchered species were found.

We thank Pam Pallette, Norm Johnson, Peter Bryant and Portia Arutunian for help with the 8/2/11 fieldwork; Keir Morse and Todd DuPont for help with the 9/4/11 fieldwork; John Randall, Michelle Tollett, and Walt Fidler for help with the 8/7/16 fieldwork; Bruce Watts for help with the 9/12/16 fieldwork; and Don Rideout for help with the 6/15/18 fieldwork.

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Copyright © 2011-2018 by Tom Chester, Dave Stith, and Nancy Accola.
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Last update: 22 June 2018