Flora of Smoke Tree and Coachwhip Canyons



This checklist is a start at a flora of Smoke Tree and Coachwhip Canyons. It contains a list of the species with reasonably-certain identifications from one survey of Smoke Tree Canyon on 26 February 2008, augmented by a few species from its junction with S22 on 2 April 2010, and two surveys of Coachwhip Canyon on 28 November 2008 and 24 February 2009. It also includes species vouchered and found from the neighboring area north of S22, from the Villager Peak Trail to the Truckhaven Rocks, since many of those may prove to be present in these canyons.

The list of species is essentially the same as given in the Flora of Southeast Santa Rosa Mountains, but this version gives the number of plants found in the surveys for Smoke Tree and Coachwhip Canyons.

The Smoke Tree / Coachwhip Canyon area is delineated by the red rectangle in the following map:

The rest of this text has not been updated since 1 December 2008, except for the checklist.

The route surveyed on 26 February 2008 is shown in red on the following map; the route surveyed on 28 November 2008 is shown in green:

There is a fairly large area for parking along either side of the road at mile marker 34.5 on S22 for Smoke Tree Canyon, and at mile marker 34.8 for Coachwhip Canyon.

Smoke Tree Canyon Survey

The survey on 26 February 2008 covered 2.2 miles from elevation 920 feet to 1560 feet, and thus did not cover the full extent of the Canyon to the natural rock tanks shown in the above map.

The survey found 80 taxa that could be fairly-confidently identified, given in the checklist below, along with five other species that could not yet be fully identified. Those species were: an unknown grass perhaps developing an inflorescence like Achnatherum; a suncup with no basal rosette; a Boerhavia species with a mostly terminal inflorescence with short peduncles; and two Ephedra species, one possibly similar to E. viridis and the other possibly similar to E. fasciculata var. clokeyi.

The locations of (generally) the first occurrence of all 85 taxa are shown in the plot below:

Some taxa were found at the same location, especially near the beginning of the survey, so there are fewer than 85 points plotted above.

Usually, most of the taxa in any survey are found near the starting point, but the above plot shows that we continued to encounter significant numbers of new species going up the canyon.

Coachwhip Canyon Survey

The survey on 28 November 2008 covered 2.8 miles from elevation 910 feet to 1400 feet.

The survey found 53 taxa that could be fairly-confidently identified, given in the checklist below, along with five other species that could not yet be fully identified. Those species were: two different Cryptantha species, at least one of which was very abundant; a perennial small grass; an abundant dead annual with broad basal leaves and capsule fruit; and an unknown very abundant dead Asteraceae annual.

Note that the Coachwhip Canyon Survey is very incomplete for annuals and perennials, since it was done in late November.

Additional Taxa in the Checklist

See the Introduction.

Checklist for Smoke Tree Canyon


An asterisk before the common name indicates a non-native species.

The last two columns give the minimum number of plants observed in the sum of all field surveys, up to a maximum number of 99, for each canyon; CW for Coachwhip and ST for Smoke Tree. A V in this column indicates a species vouchered from that canyon but which we have not yet observed.

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#FamilScientific Name(*)Common NameCWST
1PteriCheilanthes parryiwoolly lipfern  
2PteriNotholaena californica ssp. californicaCalifornia cloak fern  
3EphedEphedra asperaMormon tea 2
4AmaraAmaranthus hybridus*slim amaranth  
5AmaraTidestromia suffruticosa var. oblongifoliaArizona honeysweet1 
6ApiacTauschia argutasouthern tauschia  
7ApocyAsclepias albicanswhite-stemmed milkweed2 
8ApocyAsclepias subulatarush milkweed10 
9ApocyFunastrum hirtellumrambling milkweed405
10AsterAcamptopappus sphaerocephalus var. sphaerocephalusgoldenhead  
11AsterAdenophyllum porophylloidesSan Felipe dogweed 3
12AsterAmbrosia dumosaburroweed9930
13AsterAmbrosia salsola var. salsolacheesebush9999
14AsterBahiopsis parishiiParish's goldeneye  
15AsterBebbia juncea var. asperasweetbush9950
16AsterBrickellia desertorumdesert brickellia  
17AsterCalycoseris wrightiiwhite tackstem299
18AsterChaenactis carphoclinia var. carphocliniapebble pincushion 45
19AsterChaenactis stevioidesdesert pincushion50 
20AsterEncelia farinosabrittlebush9950
21AsterEncelia frutescensbutton encelia  
22AsterGeraea canescenshairy desert-sunflower50 
23AsterGutierrezia sarothraematchweed  
24AsterIsocoma acradenia var. acradeniaentire-leaved alkali goldenbush1 
25AsterLogfia filaginoidesCalifornia filago  
26AsterMalacothrix glabratadesert dandelion10 
27AsterMonoptilon bellioidesdesert star10 
28AsterPalafoxia arida var. aridaSpanish needle9920
29AsterPectis papposa var. papposachinch-weed  
30AsterPerityle emoryiEmory's rock-daisy9940
31AsterPeucephyllum schottiipygmy-cedar 4
32AsterPleurocoronis plurisetaarrow-leaf2010
33AsterPrenanthella exiguabright-white  
34AsterPsathyrotes ramosissimaturtleback  
35AsterRafinesquia neomexicanadesert chicory3010
36AsterSenecio mohavensisMojave ragwort 10
37AsterStephanomeria pauciflorawire-lettuce4040
38AsterTrichoptilium incisumyellow-head10 
39AsterTrixis californica var. californicaCalifornia trixis 2
40AsterXylorhiza orcuttiiOrcutt's woody-aster99 
41BoragCryptantha angustifolianarrow-leaved cryptantha9910
42BoragCryptantha barbigera var. barbigerabearded cryptantha305
43BoragCryptantha barbigera var. fergusoniaeSanta Rosa Mountain bearded cryptantha 10
44BoragCryptantha decipiensgravel cryptantha V
45BoragCryptantha maritimaGuadalupe cryptantha9930
46BoragCryptantha micrantha var. micranthared-root cryptantha5 
47BoragCryptantha nevadensis var. nevadensisNevada cryptantha  
48BoragCryptantha pterocaryawing-nut cryptantha 3
49BoragCryptantha pterocarya var. cyclopteraTucson wing-nut cryptantha V
50BoragCryptantha racemosabushy cryptantha  
51BoragCryptantha utahensisscented cryptantha V
52BoragEmmenanthe penduliflora var. penduliflorawhispering bells 10
53BoragEucrypta chrysanthemifolia var. bipinnatifidaeucrypta  
54BoragPectocarya heterocarpachuckwalla pectocarya55
55BoragPectocarya platycarpabroad-fruited combseed505
56BoragPectocarya recurvatacurvenut combseed  
57BoragPhacelia crenulata var. ambiguaheliotrope phacelia9999
58BoragPhacelia crenulata var. minutifloralittle-flowered heliotrope phacelia1 
59BoragPhacelia pedicellatapedicellate phacelia  
60BoragPlagiobothrys jonesiiJones' popcorn flower V
61BoragTiquilia palmeriPalmer's coldenia  
62BrassBrassica tournefortii*Sahara mustard9999
63BrassCaulanthus lasiophyllusCalifornia mustard210
64BrassDescurainia pinnatawestern tansy-mustard10 
65BrassDithyrea californicaspectacle-pod99 
66BrassLepidium lasiocarpum ssp. lasiocarpumhairy-podded pepper-grass9930
67BrassSisymbrium irio*London rocket2020
68BrassSisymbrium orientale*Oriental mustard  
69BrassStreptanthella longirostrislongbeak streptanthella2 
70CactaCylindropuntia bigeloviiteddy-bear cholla172
71CactaCylindropuntia echinocarpasilver cholla203
72CactaCylindropuntia ganderiGander's cholla60 
73CactaCylindropuntia ramosissimapencil cholla102
74CactaEchinocactus polycephalus var. polycephaluscottontop cactus  
75CactaEchinocereus engelmanniiEngelmann's hedgehog cactus  
76CactaFerocactus cylindraceusCalifornia barrel cactus102
77CactaMammillaria tetrancistradesert fish-hook cactus5 
78CactaOpuntia basilaris var. basilarisbeavertail cactus551
79CampaNemacladus glanduliferusglandular nemacladus  
80CaryoAchyronychia cooperifrost mat1V
81ChenoAtriplex canescens var. laciniataCaleb four-wing saltbush12 
82ChenoAtriplex hymenelytradesert holly995
83ChenoAtriplex polycarpacattle saltbush10 
84ChenoChenopodium murale*nettle-leaved goosefootV 
85CleomCleomella obtusifoliaMojave cleomellaV 
86CrassCrassula connatapygmy-weed  
87CrossCrossosoma bigeloviirock crossosoma V
88EuphoChamaesyce micromeraSonoran spurge  
89EuphoChamaesyce polycarpasmall-seeded spurge6040
90EuphoChamaesyce setilobastarfish (Yuma) spurge V
91EuphoCroton californicusCalifornia croton  
92EuphoDitaxis lanceolatanarrowleaf ditaxis 10
93EuphoDitaxis neomexicanaNew Mexico ditaxis  
94EuphoDitaxis serrata var. californicaCalifornia ditaxis  
95EuphoEuphorbia erianthabeetle spurge 20
96EuphoStillingia spinulosaannual stillingia5 
97FabacAcmispon maritimus var. brevivexillusshort-bannered coastal lotus  
98FabacAcmispon rigidusdesert lotus  
99FabacAcmispon strigosusstrigose lotus9999
100FabacAstragalus crotalariaeSalton milk-vetch1 
101FabacDalea mollissimadowny dalea 1
102FabacLupinus arizonicusArizona lupine9999
103FabacLupinus concinnusbajada lupine  
104FabacMarina parryiParry's marina  
105FabacOlneya tesotaironwood 1
106FabacParkinsonia floridablue palo verde 1
107FabacProsopis glandulosa var. torreyanahoney mesquite  
108FabacPsorothamnus emoryiEmory's indigo-bush6 
109FabacPsorothamnus schottiiindigo bush7040
110FabacPsorothamnus spinosussmoke tree9999
111FabacSenegalia greggiicatclaw4050
112FabacSenna covesiidesert senna  
113FouquFouquieria splendens ssp. splendensocotillo9999
114GeranErodium cicutarium*redstem filaree  
115GeranErodium texanumTexas filaree  
116KrameKrameria bicolorwhite rhatany601
117KrameKrameria erectaPima rhatany 1
118LamiaHyptis emoryidesert-lavender4050
119LamiaSalvia columbariaechia  
120LamiaSalvia vaseyiVasey's sage  
121LoasaMentzelia albicauliswhite-stemmed blazing star  
122LoasaMentzelia involucratabracted blazing star 2
123LoasaPetalonyx thurberi ssp. thurberiThurber's sandpaper-plant302
124MalvaAyenia compactaayenia  
125MalvaEremalche rotundifoliadesert five-spot  
126MalvaHibiscus denudatusrock hibiscus15
127MalvaHorsfordia newberryiNewberry's velvet mallow 10
128MalvaMalva parviflora*cheeseweed  
129MalvaSphaeralcea ambigua var. ambiguaapricot mallow  
130MolluMollugo cerviana*carpet-weed  
131MontiCistanthe ambiguadead man's fingers505
132NyctaAbronia villosa var. villosahairy sand-verbena99 
133NyctaAllionia incarnatatrailing four o'clock110
134NyctaAllionia incarnata var. incarnatasmall-flowered trailing four o'clock  
135NyctaBoerhavia triquetra var. intermediafivewing spiderling 20
136NyctaMirabilis laevis var. retrorsaBigelow's desert four-o'clock220
137NyctaMirabilis laevis var. villosaBigelow's desert four-o'clockVV
138OnagrChylismia cardiophylla ssp. cardiophyllaheartleaf suncup 1
139OnagrChylismia claviformis ssp. peirsoniibrown-eyed primrose9999
140OnagrEremothera boothii ssp. condensataBooth's evening primrose1010
141OnagrEulobus californicusCalifornia suncup9999
142OnagrOenothera deltoides ssp. deltoidesdune primrose1 
143OrobaOrobanche cooperiCooper's broomrape 2
144PapavEschscholzia minutiflora ssp. minutiflorasmall-flowered poppy9999
145PapavEschscholzia parishiiParish's poppy2099
146PlantMohavea confertifloraghost flower V
147PlantPlantago ovatadesert plantain991
148PolemAliciella latifolia ssp. latifoliabroad-leaf gilia704
149PolemEriastrum eremicum ssp. eremicumdesert woolly-star  
150PolemGilia stellatastar gilia310
151PolemLangloisia setosissima ssp. setosissimabristly langloisia4 
152PolemLinanthus jonesiiJones' linanthus 1
153PolemLoeseliastrum matthewsiidesert calico  
154PolemLoeseliastrum schottiiSchott's calico  
155PolygChorizanthe brevicornu var. brevicornubrittle spineflower3020
156PolygChorizanthe rigidadevil's spineflower1 
157PolygEriogonum deflexum var. deflexumflat-topped buckwheat20 
158PolygEriogonum fasciculatum var. polifoliumCalifornia buckwheat  
159PolygEriogonum inflatumdesert trumpet1030
160PolygEriogonum thomasiiThomas' buckwheat4020
161PolygEriogonum wrightii var. nodosumWright's buckwheat  
162PolygPterostegia drymarioidesthreadstem 1
163ResedOligomeris linifolialineleaf whitepuff  
164RubiaGalium stellatumstar-flowered bedstraw V
165SimmoSimmondsia chinensisjojoba  
166SolanDatura discolordesert thornapple 1
167SolanLycium cooperiCooper's boxthorn V
168SolanNicotiana obtusifoliadesert tobacco 5
169SolanPhysalis crassifoliathick-leaved ground cherry 2
170ViscaPhoradendron californicumdesert mistletoe2310
171ZygopFagonia laevisCalifornia fagonia  
172ZygopFagonia pachyacanthasticky fagonia 3
173ZygopKallstroemia californicaCalifornia caltrop  
174ZygopLarrea tridentatacreosote bush9950
175AgavaAgave deserti var. desertidesert agave 5
176AgavaHesperocallis undulatadesert lily10 
177OrchiEpipactis giganteastream orchid  
178PoaceAristida adscensionissix-weeks three-awn203
179PoaceAristida californicaCalifornia three-awn  
180PoaceAristida purpureapurple three-awn 1
181PoaceAristida purpurea var. parishiiParish three-awn V
182PoaceBouteloua aristidoides var. aristidoidesneedle grama  
183PoaceBouteloua barbata var. barbatasix-weeks grama  
184PoaceBromus madritensis ssp. rubens*red brome  
185PoaceFestuca bromoides*brome fescue 10
186PoaceHilaria rigidabig galleta9920
187PoaceMuhlenbergia microspermalittleseed muhly 1
188PoacePennisetum setaceum*fountain grass  
189PoaceSchismus barbatus*Mediterranean schismus9999

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Copyright © 2008-2017 by Tom Chester, Wayne Armstrong, James Dillane, Mike Crouse, Dave Stith, and Bill Sullivan
Permission is freely granted to reproduce any or all of this page as long as credit is given to us at this source:
Comments and feedback: Tom Chester
Last update: 28 February 2017