Panorama of Hellhole Canyon, Flatcat Canyon, and the Hellhole Canyon alluvial fan © Mike Crouse (labeled version)
Hellhole Palms © Tom Chester
Flora of Hellhole Canyon
Maidenhair Falls © Rick Halsey
This page gives just a flora of the Hellhole Canyon Area, updated as of 13 December 2013. The text on this page has not been revised to reflect that, except in the checklist portion.
Hellhole Canyon and Culp Valley are a natural floral unit, since the upper part of Hellhole Canyon is most-easily accessed via Culp Valley. The main access road to Borrego Springs in this area travels through Culp Valley and ends at the bottom of Hellhole Canyon. One of the main hiking trails in this area, the California Riding and Hiking Trail, goes from Culp Valley to the bottom of Hellhole Canyon.
Culp Valley is the first part of Anza-Borrego Desert State Park encountered by visitors traveling along S22 from Ranchita and the Montezuma Valley. You enter Anza-Borrego Desert State Park just before the road crests at the lip of the Salton Sea erosional basin and you travel down the Montezuma Grade. This is a very dramatic way to enter the park, with terrain so challenging that no road was built until S22 was finished in 1964 after ten years of construction.
The first five miles of S22 past the crest, from mile marker 6.5 to 11.6 on S22, is in Culp Valley. There is a popular campground, the Culp Valley Primitive Campground, at a turnoff near mile marker 9.2 on S22. After mile marker 11.6, the road descends into Culp Canyon, and then heads northeast along the east side of the ridge separating Hellhole Canyon from the southern part of Borrego Valley.
Immediately before the final sweeping curve to the right on S22, just before S22 meets Palm Canyon Road (turnoff to Visitor Center) at the base of Hellhole Canyon on the western outskirts of Borrego Springs, there is a large parking lot, with two restrooms, on the left (west side of S22). (See map here.) This is the parking lot for the Hellhole Canyon Trail, and for Little Surprise Canyon, as well as another access point for the California Hiking and Riding Trail.
Hellhole Canyon is one of the more popular areas of Anza-Borrego Desert State Park. The five mile roundtrip hike to Maidenhair Falls and the Hellhole Palms, with flowing water most of the year, is the top attraction. The Visitor Center often directs non-hikers to Little Surprise Canyon, right next to the Hellhole Canyon parking area, for a good wildflower show in the spring that can be enjoyed with very little walking.
The lower part of the California Hiking and Riding Trail crosses the base of the Hellhole Canyon alluvial fan, beginning at the southeast corner of the Visitor Center parking lot and crossing the Hellhole Canyon Trail, and traveling up the south wall of Hellhole Canyon to Culp Valley.
This checklist is only a start at the flora of this Canyon, since many of the entries come from vouchers I haven't yet reviewed, and I haven't yet vouchered all of the new records I have found so that my determinations can be reviewed. This checklist can only be considered a decent flora after I finish both of those tasks. This checklist will be revised as I work on both of those tasks.
Hellhole Canyon is west of Borrego Springs; Culp Valley is a flattish valley above the south wall of Hellhole Canyon:
The boundaries of this Flora are shown in more detail in the map below:
The Culp Valley Floral Area includes Culp Valley itself, plus the following areas:
- the area to the west extending up to the lip of its erosional basin at the east edge of Montezuma Valley at ~4600 feet elevation (Ranchita is in the Montezuma Valley).
- the area to the south up to Pinyon Ridge, reaching a peak elevation of 4573 feet at Wilson Peak. The Floral Area boundary is drawn a bit south of the ridgeline, since Pinyon Ridge is accessed by a Jeep Trail from Culp Valley.
- the area to the east down to the 3000 foot elevation contour.
- the area to the north down to the 3000 foot elevation contour, including most of the South Fork of the Hellhole River, accessed by a Jeep Trail from Culp Valley.
Culp Valley itself extends down to 2800 feet elevation, where Culp Canyon begins.
The total elevation range for the Culp Valley Floral Area is 2800 - 4600 feet.
The Hellhole Canyon Flora Area follows the drainage basin of Hellhole Canyon up to an elevation of 3000 feet, extending to the ridge containing Panorama Outlook on the north, the 3000 foot contour in the west and southwest, and following the top of the ridge extending from Culp Valley to Borrego Springs on the southeast. The latter ridge divides the drainage to Hellhole Canyon and the drainage to the portion of the Borrego Valley that is south of Christmas Circle in Borrego Springs.
The total elevation range for the Hellhole Canyon Area is 835 feet at the Visitor Center to 3000 feet.
The following map shows the areas surveyed so far that are included in the checklist below:
Note that very little of Culp Valley has been surveyed so far, being only covered by most of the top part of the California Riding and Hiking Trail.
The checklist below contains separate entries for the species found in each of these areas:
- Little Surprise Canyon, surveyed along the maze of routes shown in the map above. Its flora is also given separately.
- Hellhole Canyon Trail, to a bit beyond Maidenhair Falls and the Hellhole Palms. See also its detailed plant trail guide.
- The California Riding and Hiking Trail, from the Visitor Center to its intersection with the trail from the Culp Valley Primitive Camp, along with the road to S22 from that intersection. Separate entries are given in the checklist below for the top portion of this route, above a saddle at an elevation of 2580 feet, and for the bottom portion. Note that this dividing saddle is not exactly at the boundary between the two floral areas, but it is close.
See also the detailed plant trail guides for the top part and bottom part. Note that these guides are to the entire trail, one for each direction, but the checklist below uses only the part of each guide above and below the 2580 foot saddle. The saddle is at mile 2.38 on the way down, and mile 3.10 on the way up.
Procedure For Compiling The Checklist
The Checklist was compiled from field work done by myself and coworkers, and from online vouchers.
The checklist from our field work was compiled using the results up to and including 15 January 2010, which consisted of a total of 17 different full days of field work with a total of 40 people-days. The largest number of trips were done by the following people:
# field days Person 17 Tom Chester 5 Kay Madore 3 Mike Crouse 2 Wayne Armstrong and Paula Knoll
People devoting one day to a survey were: Adrienne Ballwey, James Dillane, Michael Charters, Jeff Field, Kate Harper, Frank Harris, RT Hawke, Shaun Hawke, Jim Roberts, Aaron Schusteff, Kate Shapiro, Pam Pallette, Vince Balch, Preston Taylor, and Richard Sapiro.
The surveys were all done in the non-prime time of December and January, except for one survey of Hellhole Canyon on 25 March 2005 and one survey of Little Surprise Canyon on 1 April 2008. See the links immediately above for detailed information about the area covered, the dates of coverage, and the participants, for each of the surveyed sections.
The following table gives the number of species found in each area, the total number and the total number fairly confidently identified, along with elevation ranges and miles covered in each survey area, in order of descending elevation of the survey:
Survey # miles Elevation (feet) # Taxa # Identified Taxa Min Max California Riding and Hiking Trail Top Part 2.38 2580 3520 93 84 California Riding and Hiking Trail Bottom Part 3.10 835 2580 111 106 Hellhole Canyon Trail 2.65 880 2040 187 182 Little Surprise Canyon ~2.25 880 1080 97 96
Because most of the trips were done in December and January, some of the species found could not be fully identified, although they could be distinguished in the field. These species were usually dead plants from the previous year, but sometimes were babies of the current year. Examples are species in the following genera: Datura, Nemacladus, Cryptantha, Lupinus. Observations of those species are not present in the checklist below, which contains only the fairly-confidently-identified taxa. Hence those surveys should not be considered as complete records of all the species in the area surveyed.
Most of these taxa are almost certainly identified correctly, but a small percentage of the fairly-confidently-identified taxa are what I call 95% confidence taxa. These are ones that are highly likely to be the determined taxa, but did not have flowers or fruit to make the determination 100%. One would expect that up to 5% of such species might turn out to be incorrectly identified.
Altogether, 246 separate taxa were found in these surveys.
The vouchers were obtained from searches of the Consortium of California Herbaria on 19 January 2010.
The Consortium database was searched for the subset of vouchers with coordinates using a rectangle with corners of (33.264,-116.456) and (33.231, -116.406) for Hellhole Canyon, and another rectangle with corners of (33.234, -116.504) and (33.174, -116.433) for Culp Valley. In addition, the database was searched for all vouchers, with and without coordinates, containing one of the following words in the locality field: Hellhole, Hell hole, Flatcat, Flat cat, and Culp. Searches were also made using the name of springs in Culp Valley, but no additional vouchers were retrieved.
In addition, a separate search was made for every taxon found in the field surveys that had no vouchers found in either area. This did not result in any additional vouchers for this area, making it likely that the previous searches were highly complete.
Duplicate vouchers were then eliminated. The locality field in each remaining voucher was then manually reviewed, and the vouchers were placed in the Culp Valley Floral Area, the Hellhole Canyon Floral Area, or were discarded if they were from another area. Vouchers from Culp Canyon were discarded, since they are outside the Culp Valley Area defined here.
Two vouchers of Chinese privet, Ligustrum sinense, were removed from further consideration, since they were found only near an old homestead in Culp Valley and this species is not otherwise known to be reproducing in the wild in southern California.
The determination on one voucher of Quercus john-tuckeri was treated as a voucher of Q. cornelius-mulleri, since that is a highly-likely misdetermination.
One voucher, for Cryptantha intermedia from the Hellhole Canyon alluvial fan, was taken to be misdetermined and not included in the voucher list.
A total of 369 vouchers were found, 85 from the Hellhole Canyon Area and 284 from the Culp Valley area.
Altogether, 202 separate taxa were found in these vouchers, 60 from Hellhole Canyon and 167 from Culp Valley.
The top collectors for Hellhole Canyon were:
# Vouchers % Vouchers Collector(s) 22 26 Larry Hendrickson 15 18 Carl Epling, Wm. Robison 13 15 R. Mitchel Beauchamp (10 with R. C. Pierce)
The top collectors for Culp Valley were:
# Vouchers % Vouchers Collector(s) 101 36 Frank F. Gander 22 8 Melvin M. Sweet 18 6 Michael G. Simpson 14 5 Bill Sullivan 12 4 CRES Native Seed Gene Bank, J Dunn, L Lippitt, S Anderson 11 4 Richard Mallory 11 4 Suzanne Bell 10 4 C. W. Tilforth, John Dourley 10 4 Kim Marsden, with Ruth Otis, R. Ehly, G. Clark, M. J. Churchwell
Please note the following important caveats about this preliminary Checklist:
- I have not looked at any of the vouchers yet, so I cannot vouch for their determinations. I have checked only the names of the taxa to make sure it was not unreasonable for them to occur here.
- Some taxa present in the checklist only from our observations have not been 100% identified yet, since they were never observed in bloom.
- Several of the surveyed areas are incomplete for annuals and perennials, since they have not yet been covered at prime time.
- This checklist is very incomplete for Culp Valley, since no dedicated survey has ever been done there in prime time. (Our single survey trail there was covered only in January so far.) Most of the entries come from widely-scattered vouchers, and most of the area of Culp Valley has not been botanized. (See the numbers below.)
- The checklist is somewhat incomplete for Hellhole Canyon, since most of the Canyon has not been covered by surveys in prime time. However, this checklist is a good start toward its flora, since several areas there have been covered in prime time.
- This is a very preliminary first draft Checklist, compiled quickly and without review by other knowledgeable botanists, and so well may contain bonehead errors.
Checklist for Hellhole Canyon
I make the working list available online for two reasons. First, I know others will appreciate having such a list, even if it is preliminary. Second, I hope I will get feedback from others who find errors or omissions in this list.
The Checklist follows the 2012 Jepson Manual Second Edition with only a few exceptions.
The Checklist is sorted first by the eight evolutionary categories (clades) used in the 2012 Second Edition Jepson Manual - lycophytes, ferns, etc., to eudicots and monocots - and then by family and scientific name. The clades are labeled in the Checklist. Note that this changes the order of presentation of the taxa from that of the 1993 First Edition.
The family name is abbreviated to the first six characters in order to save space in the table rows.
An asterisk before the Common Name indicates a non-native taxon.
The column labeled #Pls gives a minimum estimate of the number of plants from the field surveys, up to a maximum of 99 plants, for species seen in the field surveys for which abundances were noted.
The column labeled #V gives the number of vouchers in Henderson Canyon.
The scientific name is linked to the latest online Jepson Manual description for each species, which also gives the months in which each species flowers. That link also gives a map of where the species occurs in California; a plot of elevation vs. latitude for California; and a histogram of the voucher collections by month.
A few species may not have working links, if their names have been updated more recently (such as Mimulus diffusus, which is still listed under M. palmeri in the online flora), or if they are reserved-judgment taxa which are listed in the entry for another taxon name. However, as of 16 January2013, the Jepson Manual links have all been updated to link to the parent species for the taxa without their own entries. Taxa linked to anything other than the Jepson Manual link for the full scientific name used below have been indicated with a ^ after the scientific name, and are discussed here.
The common name for most species in the checklist is linked to Calphotos to give pictures of most taxa. Of course, there is no guarantee that the Calphotos pictures are correctly identified.
Note that the link will not always return pictures, since not every species has pictures at Calphotos, and a number of species still have their Calphotos pictures under the Jepson Manual First Edition Names. Some links have been made to the Calphotos pictures using the First Edition Jepson Manual name, if there are no pictures under the Second Edition name. Of course, that may result in a link with no pictures if those the names of those Calphotos pix are updated in the future to the Second Edition names.
Note also that the links below will return only the specified taxon at Calphotos, and not any subtaxa; i.e., a link to Cryptantha barbigera will not return photos of Cryptantha barbigera var. barbigera. There may be additional pictures at Calphotos under a different scientific name such as the First Edition Jepson Manual name.
Some links, such as for Bochera perennans, go to special pages with more information on those species.
As of 14 January 2013, the picture links have all been updated to link to a page that has pictures. Taxa linked to anything other than the Calphotos page of their full scientific name used below have been indicated with a ^ after the common name.
If you find any links from either the scientific or common names below that do not work, please let us know so we can update them.
The first column after the common name is the number of vouchers in the Hellhole Canyon Area, column header #V.
The next columns give the minimum number of plants observed in each area, up to a maximum of 99. The column headers are:
- RH: The California Riding and Hiking Trail from the Visitor Center to the Saddle at 2580 feet elevation.
- LS: Little Surprise Canyon
- Up: Hellhole Canyon above Maidenhair Falls
- Lo: Hellhole Canyon up to Maidenhair Falls
Version for printing, without lines and other text on this page: html (8 pages) or pdf Clickbook booklet (2 double-sided pages). (See printing instructions for an explanation of these options)
# Famil Scientific Name (*)Common Name #V #Plants RH LS Hellhole Up Lo Lycopods 1 Selag Selaginella eremophila desert spike-moss 1 50 40 Ferns 2 Pteri Adiantum capillus-veneris maidenhair fern 99 3 Pteri Cheilanthes covillei beady lipfern 2 30 2 30 4 Pteri Cheilanthes parryi woolly lipfern 2 99 30 2 40 5 Pteri Cheilanthes viscida sticky lipfern 2 5 6 Pteri Notholaena californica ssp. californica California cloak fern 1 1 2 7 Pteri Pellaea mucronata var. mucronata bird's-foot fern 2 Gymnosperms 8 Cupre Juniperus californica California juniper 99 5 20 9 Ephed Ephedra aspera Mormon tea 2 2 30 Eudicots 10 Acant Carlowrightia arizonica Arizona carlowrightia 1 3 99 11 Acant Justicia californica chuparosa 1 50 50 50 99 12 Adoxa Sambucus nigra ssp. caerulea blue elderberry 1 1 13 Amara Amaranthus fimbriatus fringed amaranth 40 99 14 Anaca Rhus ovata sugar bush 15 20 15 Apiac Apiastrum angustifolium wild celery 5 16 Apiac Daucus pusillus rattlesnake weed 1 20 17 Apiac Spermolepis infernensis Hellhole Canyon spermolepis 2 18 Apocy Funastrum cynanchoides var. hartwegii climbing milkweed 2 99 19 Apocy Matelea parvifolia spearleaf 1 2 20 Aster Adenophyllum porophylloides San Felipe dogweed 20 1 10 50 21 Aster Ambrosia dumosa burroweed 99 50 99 22 Aster Ambrosia psilostachya western ragweed 99 23 Aster Ambrosia salsola var. salsola cheesebush 50 20 5 99 24 Aster Artemisia ludoviciana ssp. albula white mugwort 1 10 20 25 Aster Artemisia ludoviciana ssp. ludoviciana silver wormwood 10 10 26 Aster Baccharis salicifolia ssp. salicifolia mule fat 30 5 27 Aster Baccharis sergiloides desert baccharis 10 30 28 Aster Bahiopsis parishii Parish's viguiera 1 30 2 10 50 29 Aster Bebbia juncea var. aspera sweetbush 20 20 50 50 30 Aster Brickellia atractyloides var. arguta California spear-leaved brickellia 1 31 Aster Brickellia desertorum desert brickellia 3 32 Aster Brickellia frutescens shrubby brickellia 26 33 Aster Calycoseris wrightii white tackstem 20 34 Aster Chaenactis carphoclinia var. carphoclinia pebble pincushion 99 99 35 Aster Chaenactis fremontii Fremont pincushion 1 99 99 99 36 Aster Encelia farinosa brittlebush 2 99 40 99 99 37 Aster Ericameria brachylepis boundary goldenbush 30 1 38 Aster Ericameria linearifolia narrowleaf goldenbush 1 39 Aster Erigeron canadensis horseweed 1 40 Aster Eriophyllum wallacei var. wallacei Wallace's woolly daisy 2 99 41 Aster Gutierrezia californica California matchweed 50 42 Aster Lactuca serriola *prickly lettuce 5 43 Aster Lasthenia gracilis goldfields 2 44 Aster Logfia depressa dwarf filago ? 20 45 Aster Logfia filaginoides California filago 50 99 46 Aster Malacothrix glabrata desert dandelion 1 99 20 99 47 Aster Monoptilon bellioides desert star 2 99 10 99 48 Aster Pectis papposa var. papposa chinch-weed 40 1 99 49 Aster Perityle emoryi Emory's rock-daisy 1 99 50 99 50 Aster Pleurocoronis pluriseta arrow-leaf 1 9 51 Aster Pluchea sericea arrow-weed 5 52 Aster Porophyllum gracile odora 10 20 1 53 Aster Pseudognaphalium biolettii bicolored everlasting 1 2 54 Aster Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum *common cudweed 5 55 Aster Rafinesquia neomexicana desert chicory 1 7 30 1 10 56 Aster Senecio mohavensis Mojave ragwort 99 30 5 57 Aster Solidago velutina ssp. californica goldenrod 10 40 58 Aster Sonchus asper ssp. asper *prickly sow thistle 2 59 Aster Sonchus oleraceus *sow thistle 1 1 60 Aster Stephanomeria exigua ssp. exigua slender wreathplant 1 61 Aster Stephanomeria pauciflora wire-lettuce 50 5 10 99 62 Aster Stylocline gnaphaloides everlasting nest-straw 50 63 Aster Trichoptilium incisum yellow-head 25 10 64 Aster Trixis californica var. californica California trixis 2 50 5 20 50 65 Aster Uropappus lindleyi silver puffs 2 1 66 Bigno Chilopsis linearis ssp. arcuata desert-willow 20 99 67 Borag Amsinckia intermedia common fiddleneck 99 68 Borag Amsinckia retrorsa small-flowered fiddleneck 99 10 69 Borag Amsinckia tessellata var. tessellata bristly fiddleneck x 99 70 Borag Cryptantha angustifolia narrow-leaved cryptantha 50 99 71 Borag Cryptantha barbigera var. barbigera bearded cryptantha 1 99 20 99 72 Borag Cryptantha decipiens gravel cryptantha 99 73 Borag Cryptantha maritima Guadalupe cryptantha 1 99 99 74 Borag Cryptantha micrantha var. micrantha red-root cryptantha 4 75 Borag Cryptantha nevadensis var. nevadensis Nevada cryptantha 20 76 Borag Cryptantha pterocarya wing-nut cryptantha 30 30 77 Borag Emmenanthe penduliflora var. penduliflora whispering bells 2 99 30 20 78 Borag Eriodictyon trichocalyx var. lanatum smoothleaf yerba santa 1 30 99 79 Borag Eucrypta chrysanthemifolia var. bipinnatifida eucrypta 2 5 5 80 Borag Nama demissum var. demissum purple mat 2 3 2 81 Borag Pectocarya heterocarpa chuckwalla pectocarya 1 82 Borag Pectocarya peninsularis Baja pectocarya 1 20 83 Borag Pectocarya recurvata curvenut combseed 99 99 84 Borag Phacelia cicutaria var. hispida caterpillar phacelia 99 10 5 85 Borag Phacelia crenulata var. minutiflora little-flowered heliotrope phacelia 1 30 86 Borag Phacelia distans common phacelia 2 99 99 99 99 87 Borag Phacelia minor wild canterbury bells 10 88 Borag Phacelia pedicellata pedicellate phacelia 10 9 89 Borag Phacelia ramosissima branching phacelia 3 50 90 Borag Pholistoma membranaceum white fiesta flower 50 99 99 91 Brass Brassica tournefortii *Asian mustard 1 99 99 50 99 92 Brass Caulanthus lasiophyllus California mustard 1 40 10 93 Brass Descurainia pinnata western tansy-mustard 1 50 20 30 99 94 Brass Draba cuneifolia wedge-leaved draba 2 3 95 Brass Lepidium lasiocarpum ssp. lasiocarpum hairy-podded pepper-grass 99 50 99 96 Brass Lyrocarpa coulteri Coulter's lyrepod 1 20 1 x 97 Brass Nasturtium officinale water cress 10 98 Brass Sisymbrium irio *London rocket 1 10 5 99 Brass Sisymbrium orientale *Oriental mustard 50 10 100 Brass Thysanocarpus curvipes fringe-pod 1 40 101 Cacta Cylindropuntia bigelovii teddy-bear cholla 99 1 2 99 102 Cacta Cylindropuntia ganderi Gander's cholla 99 50 20 99 103 Cacta Echinocereus engelmannii Engelmann's hedgehog cactus 1 99 1 5 40 104 Cacta Ferocactus cylindraceus California barrel cactus 99 20 20 20 105 Cacta Mammillaria dioica California fish-hook cactus 1 99 5 70 106 Cacta Opuntia basilaris var. basilaris beavertail cactus 99 5 10 99 107 Cacta Opuntia phaeacantha desert prickly-pear 17 108 Campa Nemacladus glanduliferus glandular nemacladus 3 109 Campa Nemacladus rubescens desert nemacladus 2 110 Cheno Chenopodium murale *nettle-leaved goosefoot 2 10 20 111 Cleom Peritoma arborea var. angustata desert bladderpod 1 40 112 Crass Crassula connata pygmy-weed 99 99 10 113 Crass Dudleya saxosa ssp. aloides desert dudleya 5 2 114 Cucur Cucurbita palmata coyote melon 1 115 Cucur Marah macrocarpa wild-cucumber 2 2 116 Eupho Bernardia incana western bernardia 2 1 117 Eupho Chamaesyce arizonica Arizona spurge 1 10 118 Eupho Chamaesyce melanadenia red-gland spurge 50 5 50 119 Eupho Chamaesyce micromera Sonoran spurge 15 120 Eupho Chamaesyce polycarpa small-seeded spurge 2 99 50 99 121 Eupho Chamaesyce setiloba starfish (Yuma) spurge 30 99 122 Eupho Ditaxis lanceolata narrowleaf ditaxis 1 50 20 30 99 123 Eupho Ditaxis neomexicana New Mexico ditaxis 50 2 99 124 Eupho Stillingia linearifolia linear-leaved stillingia 1 30 125 Fabac Acmispon glaber var. brevialatus short-winged deerweed 2 3 126 Fabac Acmispon maritimus var. brevivexillus short-bannered coastal lotus 99 20 50 127 Fabac Acmispon rigidus desert lotus 2 20 20 10 128 Fabac Acmispon strigosus strigose lotus 99 20 129 Fabac Dalea mollissima downy dalea 3 2 1 130 Fabac Lupinus arizonicus Arizona lupine 40 131 Fabac Lupinus concinnus bajada lupine 1 5 5 132 Fabac Lupinus sparsiflorus Coulter's lupine 5 99 133 Fabac Melilotus indicus *sourclover 50 134 Fabac Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana honey mesquite 30 135 Fabac Psorothamnus schottii indigo bush 99 20 99 136 Fabac Senegalia greggii catclaw 30 5 99 99 137 Fouqu Fouquieria splendens ssp. splendens ocotillo 4 50 50 99 138 Geran Erodium cicutarium *redstem filaree 99 99 30 99 139 Geran Erodium texanum Texas filaree 5 140 Gross Ribes indecorum white-flowering currant 2 x 141 Krame Krameria bicolor white rhatany 2 15 10 142 Krame Krameria erecta Pima rhatany 50 15 5 143 Lamia Hyptis emoryi desert-lavender 2 50 20 20 99 144 Lamia Salvia apiana white sage 2 145 Lamia Salvia columbariae chia 10 99 146 Lamia Salvia eremostachya desert sage 3 10 147 Lamia Salvia vaseyi Vasey's sage 1 15 2 5 148 Lamia Stachys rigida rigid hedge-nettle 10 5 149 Loasa Mentzelia affinis yellow blazing star 20 150 Loasa Mentzelia involucrata bracted blazing star 10 20 151 Lythr Lythrum californicum California loosestrife 10 20 152 Malva Ayenia compacta ayenia 5 2 50 153 Malva Hibiscus denudatus rock hibiscus 1 50 10 50 154 Malva Horsfordia newberryi Newberry's velvet mallow 1 1 13 155 Malva Malacothamnus aboriginum Indian Valley bush mallow 99 50 156 Malva Sphaeralcea ambigua var. ambigua apricot mallow 3 5 50 157 Mollu Mollugo cerviana *carpet-weed 45 99 158 Monti Claytonia parviflora ssp. parviflora narrow-leaved miner's lettuce 3 159 Nycta Allionia incarnata var. incarnata trailing four o'clock 10 30 160 Nycta Boerhavia coccinea scarlet spiderling 10 161 Nycta Boerhavia triquetra var. intermedia fivewing spiderling 99 99 99 162 Nycta Mirabilis laevis var. retrorsa Bigelow's desert four-o'clock 99 5 10 40 163 Oleac Menodora scabra var. glabrescens broom twinberry 30 164 Onagr Camissoniopsis pallida ssp. pallida pale suncup 1 1 1 165 Onagr Chylismia cardiophylla ssp. cardiophylla heartleaf suncup 20 35 166 Onagr Chylismia claviformis ssp. peirsonii brown-eyed primrose 50 167 Onagr Epilobium canum ssp. latifolium mountain California-fuchsia 99 168 Onagr Eremothera boothii ssp. condensata Booth's evening primrose 1 5 20 169 Onagr Eulobus californicus California suncup 1 99 99 99 170 Onagr Oenothera elata ssp. hirsutissima Hooker's evening-primrose 2 171 Oroba Castilleja foliolosa woolly Indian paintbrush 1 172 Papav Argemone munita prickly poppy 5 173 Papav Eschscholzia californica California poppy 1 174 Papav Eschscholzia minutiflora ssp. minutiflora small-flowered poppy 3 99 40 99 175 Papav Eschscholzia parishii Parish's poppy 1 20 99 10 2 176 Phrym Mimulus bigelovii var. bigelovii Bigelow's monkeyflower 1 5 99 177 Phrym Mimulus cardinalis scarlet monkeyflower 5 178 Plant Antirrhinum filipes desert twining snapdragon 4 179 Plant Collinsia concolor southern Chinese houses 20 180 Plant Keckiella antirrhinoides var. microphylla little-leaved chaparral beardtongue 2 181 Plant Mohavea confertiflora ghost flower 10 182 Plant Plantago major *common plantain 5 183 Plant Plantago ovata desert plantain 99 99 184 Plant Veronica anagallis-aquatica *water speedwell 5 185 Plata Platanus racemosa western sycamore 10 20 186 Polem Eriastrum eremicum ssp. eremicum desert woolly-star 99 30 10 x 187 Polem Gilia capitata ssp. abrotanifolia globe gilia 30 188 Polem Gilia stellata star gilia 1 99 50 1 189 Polem Langloisia setosissima ssp. setosissima bristly langloisia 99 190 Polem Loeseliastrum matthewsii desert calico 20 2 191 Polyg Chorizanthe brevicornu var. brevicornu brittle spineflower 5 40 10 192 Polyg Eriogonum fasciculatum var. polifolium California buckwheat 1 50 3 10 193 Polyg Eriogonum gracile var. incultum slender buckwheat 3? 194 Polyg Eriogonum inflatum desert trumpet 1 1 30 50 195 Polyg Eriogonum maculatum spotted buckwheat 2 196 Polyg Eriogonum thomasii Thomas' buckwheat 1 4 50 197 Polyg Eriogonum wrightii var. nodosum Wright's buckwheat 30 5 198 Polyg Pterostegia drymarioides threadstem 10 1 10 3 199 Polyg Rumex conglomeratus *whorled dock 1 200 Ranun Clematis lasiantha virgin's bower 10 1 201 Ranun Delphinium parishii ssp. subglobosum intermediate larkspur 40 x 202 Rhamn Ziziphus parryi var. parryi lotebush 10 2 203 Rosac Prunus fremontii desert apricot 20 10 50 204 Rubia Galium angustifolium ssp. borregoense Borrego bedstraw 2 2 205 Rubia Galium stellatum star-flowered bedstraw 10 206 Salic Populus fremontii ssp. fremontii Fremont cottonwood 20 2 207 Salic Salix exigua var. exigua narrowleaf willow 5 20 208 Salic Salix laevigata red willow 20 20 209 Simmo Simmondsia chinensis jojoba 50 5 20 50 210 Solan Datura discolor desert thornapple 5 211 Solan Datura wrightii sacred datura 45 212 Solan Lycium andersonii Anderson's desert-thorn 50 30 213 Solan Nicotiana obtusifolia desert tobacco 1 1 20 214 Solan Physalis crassifolia thick-leaved ground cherry 20 5 99 215 Solan Solanum douglasii white nightshade 1 216 Solan Solanum parishii Parish's purple nightshade 2 217 Tamar Tamarix ramosissima *saltcedar 2 218 Urtic Parietaria hespera var. hespera pellitory 1 30 30 50 99 219 Visca Phoradendron californicum desert mistletoe 66 220 Vitac Vitis girdiana wild grape 10 221 Zygop Fagonia laevis California fagonia 1 99 50 20 222 Zygop Larrea tridentata creosote bush 99 99 99 Monocots 223 Agava Agave deserti var. deserti desert agave 99 10 50 99 224 Agava Hesperoyucca whipplei chaparral yucca 1 1 225 Arace Lemna minuta duckweed 50 226 Areca Washingtonia filifera California fan palm 1 99 227 Junca Juncus mexicanus Mexican rush 8 228 Junca Juncus xiphioides iris-leaved rush 20 229 Lilia Calochortus splendens splendid mariposa lily 1 230 Orchi Epipactis gigantea stream orchid 3 50 231 Poace Aristida adscensionis six-weeks three-awn 5 10 99 232 Poace Aristida purpurea var. nealleyi Nealley three-awn 3 1 233 Poace Avena barbata *slender wild oats 5 50 234 Poace Bouteloua aristidoides var. aristidoides needle grama 99 235 Poace Bouteloua barbata var. barbata six-weeks grama 11 236 Poace Bromus diandrus *ripgut brome 40 237 Poace Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens *red brome 99 30 99 99 238 Poace Bromus tectorum *downy brome 35 239 Poace Cynodon dactylon *Bermuda grass 1 240 Poace Festuca bromoides *brome fescue 40 241 Poace Festuca octoflora hairy six-weeks fescue 20 242 Poace Hilaria rigida big galleta 10 3 10 243 Poace Melica frutescens tall melica 1 10 20 244 Poace Melica imperfecta coast-range melic 5 245 Poace Muhlenbergia microsperma littleseed muhly 20 246 Poace Muhlenbergia rigens deergrass 10 247 Poace Pennisetum setaceum *fountain grass 3 10 50 248 Poace Poa secunda ssp. juncifolia rush blue grass 5 249 Poace Polypogon monspeliensis *rabbits-foot grass 30 250 Poace Schismus barbatus *Mediterranean schismus 2 99 99 99 251 Poace Stipa speciosa desert needlegrass 1 252 Themi Dichelostemma capitatum ssp. capitatum blue dicks 1 1 253 Themi Muilla maritima muilla 15 254 Typha Typha domingensis southern cattail 30
Copyright © 2010-2013 by Tom Chester (17), Mike Crouse (5), Vince Balch (3), Kay Madore (3), Wayne Armstrong (2), Paula Knoll (2), Adrienne Ballwey (1), Michael Charters (1), James Dillane (1), Jeff Field (1), Kate Harper (1), Frank Harris (1), Pam Pallette (1), Jim Roberts (1), Aaron Schusteff (1), Kate Shapiro (1) and Preston Taylor (1). The number in parentheses gives the number of survey days for the Hellhole Canyon area for each person, which does not include the Culp Valley portion of the California Riding and Hiking Trail.
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Last update: 14 December 2013