Comments On the Flora of Western Riverside County
Table of Contents
Additions to the WRC Flora
Taxa In Nearby Areas Not In the WRC Flora
Deletions and Changed Identifications to the WRC Annotated Checklist
Comments on Individual Species in the WRC Annotated Checklist
Typos in the WRC Annotated Checklist
In late 2004, Fred M. Roberts, Jr., Scott D. White, Andrew C. Sanders, David E. Bramlet, and Steve Boyd released their first edition of The Vascular Plants of Western Riverside County, California: An Annotated Checklist. I will refer to it as the WRC Annotated Checklist henceforth, with WRC used to abbreviate Western Riverside County.
The WRC Annotated Checklist gives the first compilation of the flora of Western Riverside County, henceforth abbreviated WRC Flora. This paper gives a list of additional taxa found in the WRC Flora from the work of other authors and myself.
Although the WRC Annotated Checklist is called An Annotated Checklist, the annotation is extensive, and I would not have hesitated to call their book a Flora. This WRC Annotated Checklist represents an enormous amount of work, not only by the authors but by all the botanists who have collected vouchers from WRC in the past century and deposited them in a major herbarium. It is indeed the systematic and comprehensive summary of the flora of WRC that they claim it to be. The authors have intimate knowledge of many areas of WRC as well as intimate knowledge of the vouchers stored at the two main repositories of WRC plants, the Rancho Santa Ana and UC Riverside Herbaria. They have distilled this knowledge into a compact 192 page book that makes it very accessible to every botanist.
As expected, the book gives a brief description of the abundance, habitat and distribution for each taxon. But it also contains fascinating tidbits about the authors' feelings about the validity of some taxa (such as species and subspecies that are poorly separated from each other), and whether some taxa are declining or spreading. It is especially strong on including all non-native taxa growing within WRC, even if they are just urban weeds in irrigated areas. This is important, since today's urban weed might become tomorrow's noxious pest in wildlands. The authors also include observed hybrids, which are essential parts of a flora, but are oddly omitted in some floras.
The timing of the release of this book could not have been better for me, since at almost exactly the same time I began an intensive year of study of the flora of the trails of the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve. I consulted this book regularly for the many specimens I analyzed during this period, and more than once it prevented me from making an error in the determination of a species name. The book also supplied a handful of sometimes-quite-surprising additions to the flora of the greater Santa Rosa Plateau region that will be useful when I update that. (See Flora of the Greater Santa Rosa Plateau Region for a discussion of the difference between the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve and the Greater SRP Region.)
My vouchered survey of the flora of the trails of the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve has resulted in a number of additions to the WRC Flora, as well as correcting a small number of misidentifications in the Lathrop and Thorne Santa Rosa Plateau Flora that was consulted by the authors of the WRC Annotated Checklist. As a result, I have compared the WRC Annotated Checklist to the Santa Rosa Plateau flora, and present the additions and corrections to the WRC Flora in this paper.
My database also includes the digitized floras of the San Mateo Canyon Wilderness Area (Boyd, Ross, Mistretta and Bramlet 1995), the Agua Tibia Mountains (Banks 1999), and the ongoing Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve survey by Michael Simpson and myself. I therefore also include here the additions to the WRC Flora from those surveys. Because each of those three areas includes portions outside of Riverside County, I consulted the original floras to include only taxa found within Riverside County.
The comparison found a total of 69 new taxa (52 native and 17 non-native) for the WRC Flora, increasing the number of taxa from 1411 to 1480 and the number of native taxa from 987 to 1039. In addition, I identified 10 other taxa that might be present in Riverside County, but whose locations in the other floras were not clear enough to determine the precise locations of those taxa. Another 94 taxa were found to be just outside the Riverside County line, and hence might be found to be present in Riverside County by future surveys.
Additions such as given here are entirely to be expected from the first edition of any flora that covers such a wide, disparate area, as the authors of the WRC Annotated Checklist are the first to admit. Compiling a flora for such a large and disparate area like WRC is far different from compiling a flora for a small region. Botanists do intensive field surveys, as well as herbarium searches, to compile a flora for a small region. It is not possible to carry out field surveys to compile a flora of such a large region, and hence the authors had to rely mostly on herbarium samples and their own experience, augmented by the small number of previous surveys of small areas within WRC. Compiling the initial list is the essential first step in obtaining a complete flora for such a large region. I'm happy to be able to contribute in a small way to the next revision of the WRC Annotated Checklist.
My work at the Santa Rosa Plateau also gave the subspecies for a taxon given only to the species in the WRC Annotated Checklist.
My familiarity with the floras of the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve, Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve and Agua Tibia Mountains also enabled me to recognize where the WRC Annotated Checklist descriptions needed to be expanded to include those areas.
Finally, as I read through the WRC Annotated Checklist, I noted a few things that deserve mention, including identifying one listed taxon that is actually not present in Southern California (Brodiaea jolonensis). Removing this taxon decreases the final numbers given above by one native species.
All of the comments here are directed toward helping the WRC Annotated Checklist authors produce their second edition of their book, a small repayment for the information they have disseminated in their book.
The rest of this paper has five sections. The first gives the additions to the WRC Flora; the second gives species found in nearby areas that might be added to the flora in the future; the third gives deletions and changed identifications; the fourth gives comments on some of the taxa, including expanded ranges; and the fifth presents some typos I noticed in the WRC Annotated Checklist.
Additions to the WRC Flora
The following table gives the additions to the WRC Flora from the other floras mentioned above, which are all vouchered floras. See notes below the table for further information about some of these taxa.
Although each of these taxa was found inside Riverside County in at least one flora, note that an X in a column below does not guarantee that it was found inside Riverside County in every flora so marked.
The Santa Rosa Plateau Flora is abbreviated SRP, and the Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve Flora is abbreviated SMER.
Family Scientific Name Common Name Agua Tibia SRP SMER San Mateo Apiaceae Cicuta douglasii (DC.) J. Coulter & Rose western water hemlock X Asteraceae Hesperevax acaulis (Kellogg) E. Greene dwarf evax X Asteraceae Lasthenia glaberrima A.DC. smooth goldfields X Asteraceae *Osteospermum ecklonis (DC.) Norlindh African daisy X Asteraceae Stephanomeria exigua Nutt. ssp. exigua slender wreathplant X Brassicaceae Cardamine californica (Torrey & A. Gray) E. Greene var. californica milk maids X X Brassicaceae *Cardamine hirsuta L. hairy toothwort X Brassicaceae Descurainia pinnata (Walter) Britton ssp. glabra (Wooton & Standley) Detl. smooth western tansy-mustard X Brassicaceae Draba verna L. spring draba X Brassicaceae Lepidium densiflorum Schrader var. ramosum (Nelson) Thell. common pepper-grass X Campanulaceae Nemacladus longiflorus A. Gray var. breviflorus McVaugh thread plant X Convolvulaceae Calystegia macrostegia (E. Greene) Brummitt ssp. cyclostegia (House) Brummitt coast morning-glory X Ericaceae Arctostaphylos glandulosa Eastw. ssp. glandulosa Eastwood manzanita X X Ericaceae Arctostaphylos glandulosa Eastw. ssp. glandulosa X A. rainbowensis J. Keeley & Massihi hybrid Eastwood manzanita X Euphorbiaceae Chamaesyce micromera (Engelm.) Wooton & Standley Sonoran spurge X Fabaceae Astragalus didymocarpus Hook. & Arn. var. dispermus (A. Gray) Jepson dwarf white milk-vetch X Fabaceae Astragalus douglasii (Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray var. parishii (A. Gray) M.E. Jones Parish' Jacumba milk-vetch X Fabaceae Lotus argophyllus (A. Gray) E. Greene var. argophyllus X L. heermannii (Durand & Hilg.) E. Greene var. heermannii hybrid lotus X Fabaceae *Pisum sativum L. garden pea X Fabaceae Trifolium depauperatum Desv. var. truncatum (E. Greene) Isely balloon clover X X X Fabaceae *Vicia benghalensis L. purple vetch X Fagaceae Quercus acutidens Torr. Torrey's scrub oak X X Fagaceae Quercus acutidens Torr. X Q. engelmannii E. Greene scrub oak X Engelmann oak X Fagaceae Quercus agrifolia Nee var. oxyadenia (Torrey) J. Howell southern coast live oak X Gentianaceae Centaurium exaltatum (Griseb.) Piper desert centaury X Hydrophyllaceae Nemophila menziesii Hook. & Arn. var. integrifolia Parish baby blue eyes X X X Hydrophyllaceae Pholistoma membranaceum (Benth.) Constance white fiesta flower X Malvaceae Sphaeralcea ambigua A. Gray var. rugosa Kearney desert globemallow X Myrtaceae *Eucalyptus sideroxylon Cunn. red iron bark X Nyctaginaceae Abronia umbellata Lam. ssp. umbellata pink sand verbena X Polemoniaceae Allophyllum gilioides (Benth.) A.D. Grant & V. Grant ssp. gilioides dense false-gilia X Polemoniaceae Eriastrum densifolium (Benth.) H. Mason ssp. austromontanum (Craig) H. Mason southern mountain woolly-star X Polemoniaceae Linanthus bigelovii (A. Gray) E. Greene Bigelow's linanthus X Polygonaceae Eriogonum nudum Benth. var. pauciflorum S. Watson naked buckwheat X Portulacaceae Claytonia parviflora Hook. ssp. viridis (Davidson) John M. Miller & Chambers X C. parviflora Hook. ssp. parviflora narrow-leaved miner's lettuce X Ranunculaceae Clematis lasiantha Nutt. X C. pauciflora Nutt. hybrid virgin's bower X Ranunculaceae Delphinium parryi A. Gray ssp. maritimum (A. Davids.) Warnock blue larkspur X Ranunculaceae Ranunculus occidentalis Nutt. western buttercup X Ranunculaceae Thalictrum fendleri A. Gray var. fendleri Fendler's meadow-rue X Rhamnaceae Ceanothus crassifolius Torrey X C. ophiochilus Boyd, Ross & Arnseth hybrid ceanothus X Rhamnaceae Rhamnus tomentella Benth. ssp. tomentella hoary coffeeberry X Rosaceae *Prunus dulcis (Miller) D. Webb almond X Rosaceae *Rubus discolor Weihe & Nees Himalaya blackberry X X Saxifragaceae Lithophragma bolanderi A. Gray Bolander's woodland star X X Scrophulariaceae *Kickxia spuria (L.) Dumort. roundleaf fluellin X Scrophulariaceae Mimulus aurantiacus Curtis X M. clevelandii Brandegee hybrid monkeyflower X Scrophulariaceae Veronica americana (Raf.) Schwein. American speedwell X Tropaeolaceae *Tropaeolum majus L. nasturtium X Cyperaceae Eleocharis acicularis (L.) Roemer & Schultes var. bella Piper needle spikerush X X Cyperaceae Scirpus pungens Vahl three-square X X Juncaceae Juncus bryoides F.J. Herm. moss rush X X Juncaceae Juncus bufonius L. var. congestus Wahlenb. clustered toad rush X Juncaceae Juncus phaeocephalus Engelm. var. paniculatus Engelm. spreading brown-headed rush X Juncaceae Juncus phaeocephalus Engelm. var. phaeocephalus brown-headed rush X Liliaceae Zigadenus venenosus S. Watson var. venenosus death-camas X Orchidaceae Piperia unalascensis (Sprengel) Rydb. Alaska rein orchid X Poaceae *Aegilops cylindrica Host jointed goatgrass X Poaceae *Agropyron elongatum (Host) Beauv. tall wheatgrass X Poaceae Bromus anomalus Fourn. nodding brome X Poaceae *Ehrharta longiflora Sm. annual veldt grass X Poaceae Elymus X macounii Vasey Macoun's ryegrass X Poaceae *Elytrigia repens (L.) Nevski quackgrass X Poaceae *Hainardia cylindrica (Willd.) Greuter barbgrass X Poaceae *Hordeum murinum L. ssp. murinum wall barley X Poaceae Leymus Xmultiflorus (Gould) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey hybrid wild-rye X X X Poaceae *Poa infirma Kunth. weak blue grass X Poaceae Poa secunda J.S. Presl ssp. juncifolia (Scribner) R. Soreng rush blue grass X Poaceae *Polypogon viridis (Gouan) Breistr. X Typhaceae Typha angustifolia L. narrow-leaf cattail X X
Notes for some of the above taxa:
- Two taxa, Hesperevax acaulis and Agropyron elongatum, have not been updated to Jepson Manual names since the taxa have been split into two parts. Hence the vouchers need to be consulted to determine the Jepsonized name.
- Quercus acutidens is a widely-ignored taxon, even though it is the most common scrub oak in Southern California. Fred M. Roberts, Jr. says in The Oaks of the Southern California Floristic Province:Distributed from southern Riverside County through interior San Diego County into northwestern Baja California, often forming extensive stands. Q. Xacutidens is the most abundant scrub oak in interior San Diego County, as in the vicinity of Ramona.I have deleted the X in the name, restoring Torrey's original name, since there is no evidence that this is of immediate hybrid origin.
- The plants in the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve, identified as Ranunculus californicus by Lathrop and Thorne, are in fact Ranunculus occidentalis. See Note on Ranunculus occidentalis. R. californicus may be present in the San Mateo Flora, but that voucher should be reexamined to make sure of that id.
- The authors of the WRC Annotated Checklist have a nice discussion of why they excluded Nemophila menziesii var. integrifolia from the flora. Their argument is that plants corresponding to this taxon might represent hybrids. Even if that is the case, however, to be consistent, they should include it in the list, since they have included all other hybrids.
There are also vouchers from the Agua Tibia flora, not mentioned in their discussion.
- Two taxa at SMER are only orchard weeds, Tropaeolum majus and Kickxia spuria.
- Juncus phaeocephalus var. paniculatus was a redetermination of two vouchers from the Santa Rosa Plateau by J. Coffey Swab in 1988, reported in Boyd (2001). See also the expanded discussion below.
The following table gives taxa that might be present in Riverside County. I couldn't definitively tell if the taxa were inside or outside the county from the flora itself.
Family Scientific Name Common Name Agua Tibia SRP SMER San Mateo Apiaceae Osmorhiza chilensis Hook. & Arn. mountain sweet-cicely X Asteraceae Hulsea californica Torrey & A. Gray San Diego sunflower X Asteraceae Stephanomeria cichoriacea A. Gray chicory-leaved stephanomeria X Boraginaceae *Echium plantagineum L. salvation echium X Crassulaceae Sedum spathulifolium Hook. yellow stonecrop X Hydrophyllaceae Phacelia imbricata E. Greene ssp. imbricata imbricate phacelia X Plantaginaceae Plantago patagonica Jacq. Patagonia plantain X Solanaceae *Petunia violacea Lindl. X Cyperaceae Carex athrostachya Olney slender-beak sedge X Poaceae Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Shinn. ssp. trachycaulus slender wheatgrass X
Taxa In Nearby Areas Not In the WRC Flora
The following 94 taxa are not listed in the WRC Annotated Checklist, but are found just outside Riverside County. Future surveys might reveal that some of them are in fact present in Riverside County.
Family Scientific Name Common Name Agua Tibia SRP SMER San Mateo Amaranthaceae *Amaranthus arenicola I.M. Johnston sandhill amaranth X Amaranthaceae *Amaranthus rudis J.D. Sauer X Apiaceae Hydrocotyle verticillata Thunb. whorled marsh-pennywort X Apocynaceae Apocynum androsaemifolium L. spreading dogbane X Asteraceae Baccharis vanessae Beauch. Encinitas baccharis X Asteraceae Hesperevax acaulis (Kellogg) E. Greene var. ambusticola Morefield fire evax X Asteraceae Hieracium albiflorum Hook. white hawkweed X Asteraceae Hulsea vestita A. Gray ssp. callicarpha (H.M. Hall) Wilken beautiful hulsea X Asteraceae Machaeranthera juncea (E. Greene) Shinn. rush-like bristleweed X Asteraceae Madia madioides (Nutt.) E. Greene forest madia X Asteraceae Microseris elegans A. Gray elegant silverpuffs X Asteraceae Senecio astephanus E. Greene San Gabriel ragwort X Asteraceae Stephanomeria virgata Benth. ssp. pleurocarpa (Greene) Gottlieb twiggy wreath plant X Berberidaceae Berberis pinnata Lagasca ssp. pinnata shiny-leaf barberry X Brassicaceae Arabis glabra (L.) Bernh. tower mustard X Brassicaceae Erysimum capitatum (Douglas) E. Greene ssp. capitatum western wallflower X Brassicaceae Lepidium ramosissimum Nelson var. bourgeauanum (Thell.) Rollins branched pepper-grass X Cactaceae *Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Miller mission cactus X X Campanulaceae Githopsis specularioides Nutt. common bluecup X Caprifoliaceae Lonicera hispidula Douglas var. vacillans A. Gray hairy honeysuckle X Caprifoliaceae Symphoricarpos albus (L.) S.F. Blake var. laevigatus (Fern.) S.F. Blake snowberry X Caryophyllaceae Cardionema ramosissimum (J.A. Weinm.) Nelson & J.F. Macbr. sandmat X Caryophyllaceae *Scleranthus annuus L. ssp. annuus knawel X Chenopodiaceae Chenopodium atrovirens Rydb. forest goosefoot X Cucurbitaceae *Cucurbita pepo L. X Ericaceae Arctostaphylos pringlei C. Parry ssp. drupacea (C. Parry) P. Wells pink-bracted manzanita X Ericaceae Chimaphila menziesii (D. Don) Sprengel little prince's pine X Ericaceae Pterospora andromedea Nutt. pinedrops X Ericaceae Pyrola picta Smith white-veined wintergreen X Ericaceae Rhododendron occidentale (Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray western azalea X X Fabaceae *Gleditsia triacanthos L. X Fabaceae Lotus nevadensis (S. Watson) E. Greene var. nevadensis Sierra Nevada lotus X Fabaceae *Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br. X Fagaceae Quercus agrifolia Nee var. oxyadenia (Torr.) J.T. Howell X Quercus wislizeni A. DC.var. frutescens Engelm. hybrid oak X Fagaceae Quercus kelloggii Newb. California black oak X Grossulariaceae Ribes nevadense Kellogg mountain pink currant X Hypericaceae Hypericum anagalloides Cham. & Schldl. tinker's penny X X Lamiaceae Salvia apiana Jeps. X S. clevelandii (A. Gray) Greene gray sage X Lamiaceae Salvia sonomensis E. Greene Sonoma sage X Lamiaceae Trichostema austromontanum Harlan Lewis ssp. austromontanum southern bluecurls X Onagraceae Camissonia robusta Raven robust sun-cup X X Onagraceae Clarkia delicata (Abrams) Nelson & J.F. Macbr. delicate clarkia X Onagraceae Gayophytum diffusum Torrey & A. Gray ssp. parviflorum Harlan Lewis & J. Szweykowski groundsmoke X Polemoniaceae Linanthus ciliatus (Benth.) A. Greene whisker-brush X Polemoniaceae Linanthus orcuttii (C. Parry & A. Gray) Jepson Orcutt's linanthus X Polygonaceae *Polygonum prolificum (Small) Robinson bushy knotweed X Portulacaceae Claytonia exigua Torrey & A. Gray ssp. exigua little spring beauty X Ranunculaceae Aquilegia formosa Fischer western columbine X Resedaceae *Reseda alba L. white mignonette X Rhamnaceae Ceanothus crassifolius Torr. X C. greggii A. Gray var. perplexans (Trel.) Jeps. hybrid ceanothus X Rhamnaceae Ceanothus leucodermis E. Greene hairy whitethorn X Rosaceae Horkelia truncata Rydb. Ramona horkelia X Rosaceae *Malus sylvestris Miller domestic apple X Rosaceae *Prunus persica Batsch peach X X Rosaceae Prunus virginiana L. var. demissa (Nutt.) Torrey western choke-cherry X Rosaceae *Pyrus sp. pear X Rosaceae Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt. wood rose X Rosaceae Rubus leucodermis Torrey & A. Gray white-bark raspberry X Rosaceae Rubus parviflorus Nutt. thimbleberry X Rutaceae Cneoridium dumosum (Nutt.) Baillon bushrue X Scrophulariaceae Castilleja applegatei Fernald ssp. martinii (Abrams) T.I. Chuang & Heckard X C. foliolosa Hook. & Arn. hybrid paintbrush X Scrophulariaceae *Digitalis purpurea L. purple foxglove X Scrophulariaceae Keckiella ternata (Torrey) Straw var. ternata whorledleaf penstemon X Scrophulariaceae Penstemon Xparishii A. Gray Parish's penstemon X Solanaceae *Solanum marginatum L. f. white-margined nightshade X Ulmaceae *Ulmus minor Miller smooth-leaved elm, English elm X Verbenaceae Verbena lasiostachys Link var. scabrida Mold. western vervain X Violaceae Viola purpurea Kellogg ssp. purpurea goosefoot violet X Viscaceae Arceuthobium campylopodum Engelm. pine dwarf-mistletoe X Cupressaceae Calocedrus decurrens (Torrey) Florin incense-cedar X Pinaceae Abies concolor (Gordon & Glend.) Lindley white fir X Pinaceae Pinus jeffreyi Grev. & Balf. Jeffrey pine X Pinaceae Pinus torreyana Carriere Torrey pine X Cyperaceae Carex multicaulis L. Bailey forest sedge X Cyperaceae *Scirpus tuberosus Desf. tubered bulrush X Iridaceae *Iris Xgermanica L. iris X Juncaceae Juncus dubius Engelm. Mariposa rush X Juncaceae Juncus patens E. Meyer common rush X Liliaceae *Allium ampeloprasum L. X Liliaceae *Aloe arborescens Miller aloe X Liliaceae *Aloe chabaudii Schonl. aloe X Liliaceae Brodiaea filifolia S. Watson X B. orcuttii (E. Greene) Baker hybrid brodiaea X Liliaceae *Callicore rosea Link amaryllis belladonna? X Liliaceae Nolina cismontana Dice X Orchidaceae Corallorhiza maculata Raf. spotted coralroot X Poaceae *Agropyron desertorum (Fischer) Schultes desert crested wheatgrass X Poaceae *Cortaderia selloana (Schultes) Asch. & Graebner pampas grass X Poaceae *Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd. crows-foot grass X Poaceae Elymus stebbinsii Gould Stebbins' wildrye X Poaceae Festuca californica Vasey var. parishii (Piper) A. Hithc. California fescue X Poaceae *Lolium perenne L. English rye-grass X X X Dryopteridaceae Polystichum munitum (Kaulf.) C. Presl western sword fern X Isoetaceae Isoetes nuttallii Engelm. Nuttall's quillwort X Pteridaceae Pentagramma triangularis (Kaulf.) G. Yatskievych, Windham & Wollenweber ssp. viscosa (D.Eaton) G. Yatsk., Windham & Wollenweber silverback fern X
Notes for some of the above taxa:
- The taxon Hesperevax acaulis var. ambusticola may or may not be the same as the Hesperevax acaulis given in the table of additions to the WRC Annotated Checklist.
- Lolium perenne may be included in the WRC Annotated Checklist already. The WRC Annotated Checklist entry is ambiguous, listing Lolium perenne [L. multiflorum; L. perenne ssp multiflorum], but then calling it an annual. L. perenne, as given in the JM, is a perennial distinct from the annual L. multiflorum.
Deletions and Changed Identifications to the WRC Annotated Checklist
The following text gives deletions, possible deletions and changed identifications to the WRC Annotated Checklist:
- One taxon should be deleted from the WRC Annotated Checklist: Brodiaea jolonensis. That species exists only in northern California. Specimens identified as "Brodiaea jolonensis" in Southern California are misidentified. They have at least 13 significant differences from the true population of B. jolonensis found in Monterey County. The misidentifications trace to Niehaus 1971; his own voucher specimens of "B. jolonensis" from Southern California are inconsistent with that identification, using his own properties for each species.
Specimens in Southern California identified as "B. jolonensis" are very close to the specimens identified as B. terrestris ssp. kernensis, differing in only the length of the filaments and some properties of the staminodes. Until further work is done, it is probably best simply to combine all Southern California specimens under the single name of B. terrestris ssp. kernensis.
- Ranunculus californicus is a possible deletion. See the above note.
- I found several clear Elymus elymoides ssp. californicus specimens at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve. The WRC Annotated Checklist only lists this to the species level, so this subspecies can now be added.
Comments on Individual Species in the WRC Annotated Checklist
Page No. Taxon Comment 24 Daucus pusillus Also widespread in grassland at the Santa Rosa Plateau. 24 *Foeniculum vulgare Found in riparian areas at the Santa Rosa Plateau and Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve. 26 *Vincetoxicum nigrum (Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi) The Jepson Interchange says this weed has been extirpated. 26 *Acroptilon repens There is also a 50 feet x 30 feet patch along Fault Road at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve that survived the 2001-2002 drought. 28 Aster defoliatus (Aster bernardinus) I discovered a patch of this species at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve on 23 September 2005. 28 Aster lanceolatus ssp. hesperius This occurs in at least three locations at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve, with two of the populations quite extensive. 30 *Calyptocarpus vialis The description, introduced from Texas or SE U.S., implies that is where this species is native. Some online sources also state that, but others, such as the USDA says this is introduced to the U.S. The Global Compendium of Weeds says it is native to Central America. 32 *Cotula australis This is actually a fairly common weed in natural habitats. The Agua Tibia Flora states: common in disturbed sites and drainages". The San Mateo Flora states: Uncommon but widespread in the wilderness. 32 *Cynara cardunculus Unfortunately, this is also present at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve, and has proved difficult to eliminate there. It is occasional at San Mateo. 36 *Gazania linearis All floras report this as the Gazania species, yet all plants I have observed in wildlands have been the "bunching" hybrid that people have in their yards, with some leaves linear and some leaves compound, not the "trailing" kind with just linear leaves. The Sunset Western Garden Book says these are complex hybrids between a number of species. Compare this pix of Gazania linearis with this typical picture or this one of the garden plants. 37 Gnaphalium californicum My experience is that the flowers smell like maple syrup. The leaves have their own distinct odor, but it is not that of maple syrup. 37 Gnaphalium canescens ssp. beneolens This taxon is quite common at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve, and was misidentified by Lathrop and Thorne as Gnaphalium canescens ssp. microcephalum. See next entry. 37 Gnaphalium canescens ssp. microcephalum This taxon is actually quite scarce at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve. See previous entry. 37 Gutierrezia sarothrae The plants at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve are closer to G. sarothrae than to the G. californica determination of Lathrop and Thorne. See Plants of Southern California: Analysis Pages: Matchweed (Gutierrezia) 38 *Hedypnois cretica This is an extremely common species at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve, densely lining all the roads in the eastern part. It is so common that it is hard to believe it wasn't present in the 1985 Lathrop and Thorne flora. If it truly was absent in 1985, it has expanded rapidly across the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve. 42 Pluchea sericea Also present just over the county line at Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve along Stone Creek as it ends at the Santa Margarita River, and probably present upstream in Riverside County along similar drainages. 43 Solidago californica This species has a different habitat at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve than described in the WRC Annotated Checklist. It is never found at seeps and canyon bottoms there; its SRPER habitat is up on the top of stream banks somewhat away from streams, as well as in moist shady areas with no obvious drainage nearby. Lathrop and Thorne say: frequent perennial of grassy clearings of oak woodland and chaparral-clad slopes. The San Mateo Flora says: common and widespread, especially in oak woodland understory, but also occurring in scrub, riparian and grassland habitats. 43 Stephanomeria diegensis This is a coastal species, but as far as I know, it is the only one of the S. diegensis / S. virgata pair in the Santa Ana Mountains, at least in their southernmost portion (although there is a report of S. virgata being locally common in Lucas Canyon in the San Mateo Flora that I need to check). The report of S. virgata in the Santa Rosa Plateau is incorrect; all those specimens are S. diegensis. See Plants of Southern California: Stephanomeria Geographic Distribution and links therein. 44 Stephanomeria virgata ssp. virgata See above entry. 49 Plagiobothrys arizonicus This was also reported as an infrequent annual in grasslands in the Santa Rosa Plateau Flora, although I've never seen it there. 49 Plagiobothrys undulatus This is locally common in the vernal pools at the Santa Rosa Plateau, not scarce. This taxon forms white rings around the Main Pool at times. 50 Cardamine californica var. integrifolia There is something funny going on with the two varieties of this species, and perhaps neither variety is truly a distinct taxon. The history of variety integrifolia in Southern California is interesting.
Back in the days of Munz, only var. californica was said to occur in Southern California, with var. integrifolia being w. of main coast ranges, Monterey Co. to Humboldt Co. and having cauline lflets mostly oblanceolate and entire.
In 1993, Rollins apparently redefined integrifolia in Harvard Pap. Bot. 4: 44. 1993, and put the same in the JM. The main change was that integrifolia now was said to have lflets or lobes of cauline lvs gen oblong to linear, gen entire or teeth small, few or only 1 at tip. Quite a change from oblanceolate leaflets to oblong to linear leaflets!
The WRC Annotated Checklist is the only one in my database that reports var. integrifolia, although it was recently added to the San Diego County Flora. This may be just due to the fairly recent change in the circumscription of var. integrifolia.
I have surveyed the plants in the field at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve in two separate locations, and they clearly fit var. californica. The 20-30 plants at each location have almost entirely ovate, toothed cauline leaves, with only a single plant or two having its uppermost cauline leaves oblong and entire. This is why I put var. californica in the list of additions given above.
However, a similar survey at Torrey Pines State Reserve in San Diego County revealed a complete mix of the two varieties. For example, at one location I found 23 oblong, ~entire to 2-toothed leaflets; and 26 ovate, mostly toothed leaflets. In many cases, an individual plant had both kinds of leaves on it. Typically, the lowermost 1-2 cauline leaves would be ovate and toothed; the uppermost 1-2 cauline leaves would be oblong and ~entire, usually only with a terminal tooth.
Bottom line: the WRC Annotated Checklist should either list both varieties, or none at all.
53 *Raphanus sativus The WRC Annotated Checklist says apparently totally unsuccessful at establishment in the absence of soil disturbance, such as that generated by "weed control" programs. While it may be true that this is not an aggressive weed, it certainly establishes itself in some other places, primarily riparian. There are two patches at the Santa Rosa Plateau: one in a moist area along a trail, alongside Cirsium vulgare, and another in an undisturbed (but weedy) area between a trail and a road. It is also in an undisturbed canyon in the Laguna Mountains. 57 Isomeris arborea Zach Principe discovered a plant at the corner of Cleveland National Forest Dr. and Tenaja Rd. at the Santa Rosa Plateau. 65 Convolvulus simulans Also discovered at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve, at Clay Hill, by Zach Principe. 66 Cuscuta californica var. papillosa I discovered several populations at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve in 2005. 73 Lupinus agardhianus Also in the Santa Rosa Plateau flora, according to Lathrop and Thorne. 75 Lupinus microcarpus var. microcarpus Fairly common at the Santa Rosa Plateau. 80 Erodium texanum Zach Principe observed 3-10 individuals in 2001 just east of I-15 in Lake Elsinore 81 *Geranium dissectum This species is extremely common at the Santa Rosa Plateau, being present on all 16 plant trail guides in abundance. It is more abundant than Galium aparine, which is present on only 13 plant trail guides. 83 Phacelia cryptantha I have a late-season specimen from Borrego Palm Canyon that is a perfect P. cryptantha, but every plant in the main season at that location is Phacelia cicutaria var. hispida. If the single voucher specimen for the WRC Annotated Checklist is also a late-season plant, I'd be very suspicious of this determination. 90 *Lythrum hyssopifolium Lythrum hyssopifolia (note spelling change) is extremely common at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve, being present on 13 of the 16 plant trail guides in extreme abundance, often lining the trails for some distance and dominant in some drainages. 99 Plantago elongata I discovered a population of this at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve in 2005 in one location. 105 Eriogonum fasciculatum vars. foliolosum and polifolium The Annotated Checklist says: The two subspecies sometimes occur together, yet never appearing to hybridize, and thus behaving as distinct biological species.
Oddly, this is almost the exact opposite of my experience! In many locations for my plant trail guides, I sometimes have a hard time declaring which specimen is "good enough" to be the first example of each taxon. For example, on the Dripping Springs Trail at Agua Tibia Mountain, I note at mile 1.64 the Beginning of transition region from var. foliolosum to var. polifolium, with the transition region ending at about mile 2.06. In this transition region, the plants take every form between the two varieties. Some day I plan to take leaf samples all along this trail, and take pictures of the transition from one variety to the other.
The Dripping Springs Trail is actually one of the cleanest transitions I've seen. At Daley Ranch in San Diego County, the plants appear mixed together with gradations between the two. Along the North Gate to Temecula Gorge trail at the Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve, it is often hard to call a specimen. In fact, this was a topic of discussion on a tour I led for the CNPS Riverside Chapter on that route. I have also found intermediate specimens in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains.
If there weren't large areas where only one of these varieties occur, I'd be suspicious that they were separate taxa.
105 Eriogonum gracile vars. gracile and incultum I have only found var. gracile, with very clear tomentose inflorescence stems, at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve. 106 *Polygonum lapathifolium The WRC Annotated Checklist gives this as non-native. This may be a typo, since every source I could find gives this as a native taxon. But since the range of this species extends to eastern North America, perhaps the authors of the WRC Annotated Checklist feel otherwise.
This taxon certainly behaves like a native taxon, since I have seen only a few specimens of this species.
108 Claytonia perfoliata ssp. mexicana This is also common at the Santa Rosa Plateau. 108 *Ranunculus sceleratus This taxon has recently been found in San Diego County (see the September 2005 San Diego County Plant Atlas Newsletter, which is online but apparently can't be linked). Given the distribution of vouchers, it does not seem unreasonable that this is in fact native to Southern California. 113 Rhamnus crocea Despite this species being said to be mostly absent from the Santa Ana Mountains, it is common at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve. 115 *Galium murale I found this in two separate locations at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve in 2005, which apparently triples the number of known locations in Southern California. 115 *Galium parisiense This has now turned up in a number of places in Southern California, including the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve (in undisturbed coastal sage scrub), at Palomar Mountain, and at Daley Ranch. I have it on 7 plant trail guides, and in 8 floras in Southern California. 121 Mimulus fremontii Also common in the Agua Tibia Flora 124 Solanum parishii The plants in the Santa Rosa Plateau Flora called S. xanti are all actually clear specimens of Solanum parishii. The plants at Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve are also this taxon. 125 Solanum xanti See previous note. 133 Cyperus esculentus Also reported by Lathrop and Thorne at the Santa Rosa Plateau along De Luz Creek, but it isn't clear whether they vouchered specimens from Riverside County or San Diego County. 134 Eleocharis acicularis var. acicularis This taxon is a perennial, not an annual. The annual form is Eleocharis acicularis var. bella, in the list of additions to the WRC Annotated Checklist above. 136 Chlorogalum pomeridianum var. pomeridianum Common in grassland as well, at the Santa Rosa Plateau. 137 Juncus phaeocephalus vars. phaeocephalus and paniculatus, J. oxymeris Lathrop and Thorne reported J. oxymeris from the Santa Rosa Plateau, but their two vouchers were redetermined as J. phaeocephalus var. paniculatus, as reported in Boyd (2001). To further complicate this matter, I discovered only clear J. phaeocephalus var. phaeocephalus, with 5-7 heads per inflorescence, at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve in 2005.
The Flora of North America further speculates that Juncus phaeocephalus var. paniculatus, with more than 10 heads per inflorescence, perhaps should actually be classified as J. macrandus.
From all of the above, it seems likely that there is trouble in J. phaeocephalus / J. oxymeris land, with further study needed to straighten the species out.
143 Aristida ternipes var. hamulosa Zach Principe discovered this taxon at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve in 2002. 143 *Brachypodium distachyon There are two populations at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve, one of which is in a fairly surprising location: along the Vernal Pool Trail in the middle of the chaparral section, discovered in 2003. 146 Elymus elymoides I found a clear ssp. californicus at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve in 2005. 148 *Hordeum marinum ssp. gussoneanum There are a number of populations at the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve, all in seasonally-moist drainages or seasonally-wet depressions in grassland. 149 *Lolium perenne See discussion above 150 *Lolium temulentum Unfortunately, this species is well established and locally abundant at the Santa Rosa Plateau. 151 Paspalum distichum This species has now mostly taken over the Main Vernal Pool on the Mesa de Colorado at the Santa Rosa Plateau, and hence is now also found in vernal pools. It was not recorded to be present in any vernal pool by Lathrop and Thorne. It apparently came into the Pool after the water level was lowered in 1984 in order to restore it to the presumed level in the mid-19th century before the ranchers dammed the outlet. 155 Brodiaea jolonensis This taxon is only found in northern California, and should be deleted from the WRC Annotated Checklist; see discussion above 160 Nemophila menziesii var. integrifolia See discussion above.
Typos in the WRC Annotated Checklist
Page No. Typo Correction 5 25 meters (410 feet) 125 meters (410 feet) 6 the historical alluvial plains of the tributaries from the San Gabriel Mountains the historical alluvial plains of the tributaries from the easternmost San Gabriel Mountains 7 Figure at top of page apparently labels the entire white area connected to the Banning Pass with that name I suspect that portion should be labeled San Timeteo Canyon. Answer from Fred Roberts: the name does indeed apply to the entire white area, so the label should be moved to extend across the dotted line to make that clear. 10 Total Pteridophytes: 1 Total Pteridophytes: 31 11 well labeled collections well-labeled collections 16 Cystoperis fragilis and Cyrtomium falcatum> out of alphabetical order 31 Chaenactis artemisaefolia Chaenactis artemisiifolia 56 under O. engelmannii in Appendix III under O. engelmannii in Appendix I (note: there are three occurrences of this typo on this page) 60 Spergularia macrotheca var. luecantha Spergularia macrotheca var. leucantha 65 Calystegia occidentalis ssp. fulcrata Out of alphabetical order. 77 so it's status so its status 78 Quercus wislizenii Quercus wislizeni (in two locations on the page) 85 Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) R. Br. Leonotis nepetifolia (L.) W. T. Aiton.?? See the Jepson Interchange discussion for Leonotis leonurus. 88 Lennoaceaea out of alphabetical order 90 Lythrum hyssopifolium Lythrum hyssopifolia 91 Sidalcea malvaeflora ssp. sparsifolia Sidalcea malviflora ssp. sparsifolia 106 gravely gravelly 107 californicusRech californicus Rech 110 Ranunculus californica Ranunculus californicus 115 Populus fremontii ssp. fremontii X P. balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa Populus balsamifera ssp. trichocarpa X P. fremontii ssp. fremontii 118 Castilleja densiflorus Castilleja densiflora 125 spontanious spontaneous 125 Fremontodendron californicum var. californicum Fremontodendron californicum ssp. californicum. IPNI lists no valid names using variety. 125 Tamarix aralensis out of alphabetical order 141 Aristida pupurea var. nealleyi Aristida purpurea var. nealleyi 152 BLUEGRSS BLUEGRASS 152 Secale cerale Secale cereale 192 Fred has has Fred has 192 in addition to be involved in addition to being involved 192 California,Riverside California, Riverside
Banks, Darin L. 1999. A Vascular Flora of the Agua Tibia Mountains, Southern California. Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden Occasional Publications, No. 4. Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, Claremont, California.
Boyd, S., Ross, Timothy S., Mistretta, Orlando and Bramlet, David. 1995. Vascular Flora of the San Mateo Canyon Wilderness Area, Cleveland National Forest, California. Aliso 14:109-139.
Chester, Thomas J. 2003. Santa Margarita Ecological Reserve: Preliminary Plant List by Trail, http://tchester.org/sd/plants/guides/smer/plant_list.html, 26 December 2003. (This is an older list; the current version of the list in my database was used for this paper.)
Chester, Thomas J. 2005. Flora of the Greater Santa Rosa Plateau Region, http://tchester.org/srp/plants/list/master.html, 9 June 2005. (This is an older list; the current version of the list in my database was used for this paper.)
Chester, Thomas J. 2005. Flora of the Trails of the Santa Rosa Plateau Ecological Reserve, http://tchester.org/srp/plants/list/trails.html, 9 June 2005. (This is an older list; the current version of the list in my database was used for this paper.)
Lathrop, Earl W. and Thorne, Robert F. 1985. A Flora of the Santa Rosa Plateau, Southern California. Southern California Botanists, Special Publication No. 1.
Roberts, Fred M., Jr., White, Scott D., Sanders, Andrew C., Bramlet, David E. and Boyd, Steve. 2004. The Vascular Plants of Western Riverside County, California: An Annotated Checklist, F.M. Roberts Publications, San Luis Rey, California.
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